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Masaji Murakami, Yukitaka Ushio, Yosuke Mihara, Jun-Ichi Kuratsu, Seikoh Horiuchi and Yoshimasa Morino

vitro morphologic and growth characteristics of established human glioma-derived cell lines to their tumorigenicity in athymic nude mice. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 40 : 390 – 409 , 1981 Bigner SH, Bullard DE, Pegram CN, et al: Relationship of in vitro morphologic and growth characteristics of established human glioma-derived cell lines to their tumorigenicity in athymic nude mice. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 40: 390–409, 1981 3. Boyles JK , Zoellner CD , Anderson LJ , et al : A role for apolipoprotein E

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Jerald J. Bernstein, Anna V. Anagnostopoulos, Emily A. Hattwick and Edward R. Laws Jr.

xenografts migrate in rat brain: a model for central nervous system cancer research. J Neurosci Res 22: 134–144, 1989 6. Bernstein JJ , Goldberg WJ , Laws ER Jr : Immunohistochemistry of human malignant astrocytoma cells xenografted to rat brain: apolipoprotein E. Neurosurgery 24 : 541 – 546 , 1989 Bernstein JJ, Goldberg WJ, Laws ER Jr: Immunohistochemistry of human malignant astrocytoma cells xenografted to rat brain: apolipoprotein E. Neurosurgery 24: 541–546, 1989 7. Bernstein JJ , Goldberg WJ

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Michael R. Chicoine and Daniel L. Silbergeld

astrocytoma cells xenografted to rat brain: apolipoprotein E. Neurosurgery 24 : 541 – 546 , 1989 Bernstein JJ, Goldberg WJ, Laws ER Jr: Immunocytochemistry of human malignant astrocytoma cells xenografted to rat brain: apolipoprotein E. Neurosurgery 24: 541–546, 1989 9. Bernstein JJ , Goldberg WJ , Laws ER Jr , et al : C6 glioma cell invasion and migration of rat brain after neural homografting: ultrastructure. Neurosurgery 26 : 622 – 628 , 1990 Bernstein JJ, Goldberg WJ, Laws ER Jr, et al: C6 glioma

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Michael R. Chicoine and Daniel L. Silbergeld

. Bernstein JJ , Goldberg WJ , Laws ER Jr : Immunohistochemistry of human malignant astrocytoma cells xenografted to rat brain: Apolipoprotein E. Neurosurgery 24 : 541 – 546 , 1989 Bernstein JJ, Goldberg WJ, Laws ER Jr: Immunohistochemistry of human malignant astrocytoma cells xenografted to rat brain: Apolipoprotein E. Neurosurgery 24: 541–546, 1989 9. Bernstein JJ , Goldberg WJ , Laws ER Jr , et al : C6 glioma cell invasion and migration of rat brain after neural homografting: ultrastructure

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Grant Sinson, Brian R. Perri, John Q. Trojanowski, Eugene S. Flamm and Tracy K. McIntosh

nontraumatic mechanisms (surgical disruption or tumor infiltration) also results in memory disturbances in humans. 9 This further implicates the septohippocampal pathway as a potential area in human head injury which, when damaged, may result in cognitive deficits. More recently, associations between Alzheimer's disease and head trauma have been identified, including the suggestion that patients with the apolipoprotein-e4 allele have a much greater risk of Alzheimer's disease if they also have a history of traumatic head injury. 38, 39, 51 The loss of cholinergic neurons

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Daniel L. Silbergeld and Michael R. Chicoine

WJ , Laws ER Jr : Human malignant astrocytoma xenografts migrate in rat brains: a model for central nervous system cancer research. J Neurosci Res 22 : 134 – 143 , 1989 Bernstein JJ, Goldberg WJ, Laws ER Jr: Human malignant astrocytoma xenografts migrate in rat brains: a model for central nervous system cancer research. J Neurosci Res 22: 134–143, 1989 6. Bernstein JJ , Goldberg WJ , Laws ER Jr : Immunohistochemistry of human malignant astrocytoma cells xenografted into rat brain: apolipoprotein E

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female patients with TBI fare better than male patients in this integrative parameter. The authors mention the possible effect of sex hormones; however, they tend to emphasize the possible negative effect of estrogen whereas the well-documented protective effect of progesterone in experimental brain injury, 1 , 6–10 although mentioned, is less emphasized. It is well known that genetic factors like the apolipoprotein E-epsilon4 genotype 2 may play a role in recovery from TBI and that gender differences may play an important role. However, as the data exist at the

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Helmut L. Laurer, Florence M. Bareyre, Virginia M. Y. C. Lee, John Q. Trojanowski, Luca Longhi, Rachel Hoover, Kathryn E. Saatman, Ramesh Raghupathi, Shigeru Hoshino, M. Sean Grady and Tracy K. McIntosh

injury. Brain Res 477: 211–224, 1989 42. Johansson BB , Ohlsson AL : Environment, social interaction, and physical activity as determinants of functional outcome after cerebral infarction in the rat. Exp Neurol 139 : 322 – 327 , 1996 Johansson BB, Ohlsson AL: Environment, social interaction, and physical activity as determinants of functional outcome after cerebral infarction in the rat. Exp Neurol 139: 322–327, 1996 43. Jordan BD , Relkin NR , Ravdin LD , et al : Apolipoprotein E ϵ4

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Koreaki Mori

A , Guarnieri BM , et al : Analysis of apolipoprotein E, α 1-antichymotrypsin and presenilin-1 genes polymorphisms in dementia caused by normal pressure hydrocephalus in man. Neurosci Lett 229 : 177 – 180 , 1997 Nacmias B, Tedde A, Guarnieri BM, et al: Analysis of apolipoprotein E, α 1-antichymotrypsin and presenilin-1 genes polymorphisms in dementia caused by normal pressure hydrocephalus in man. Neurosci Lett 229: 177–180, 1997 28. Sand T , Bovim G , Grimse R , et al : Idiopathic normal pressure

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Imran Liaquat, Laurence T. Dunn, James A. R. Nicoll, Graham M. Teasdale and John D. Norrie

injury. 22 Apolipoprotein E, the protein coded for by the APOE gene located on chromosome 19, has diverse biological properties that may be linked to outcome after brain injury. Findings of a number of clinical studies support the concept that the APOE genotype not only influences outcome after head injury, but also after ischemic stroke 19 and SICH. 1 In addition, carriers of the APOE-ϵ4 allele have been shown to recover neuropsychological and cognitive functions less well following cardiac bypass surgery. 21 A small study of prolonged posttraumatic coma