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Walavan Sivakumar, J. Bradley Elder and Mark H. Bilsky

AA , : Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion associated complications . Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 32 : 2310 – 2317 , 2007 18 Franck JI , King RB , Petro GR , Kanzer MD : A posttraumatic lumbar spinal synovial cyst. Case report . J Neurosurg 66 : 293 – 296 , 1987 19 Fransen P , Pizzolato GP , Otten P , Reverdin A , Lagier R , de Tribolet N : Synovial cyst and degeneration of the transverse ligament: an unusual cause of high cervical myelopathy. Case report . J Neurosurg 86 : 1027 – 1030 , 1997 20 Freidberg SR

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Kyle P. O’Connor, Adam D. Smitherman, Ali H. Palejwala, Greg A. Krempl and Michael D. Martin

Gulsen S : Anterior cervical discectomy in a patient with huge thyroid tissue (goiter) . J Neurosci Rural Pract 5 ( Suppl 1 ): S83 – S85 , 2014 5 Indiran V : Unusual cause of dysphagia: Superior thyroid cornu syndrome . Dig Endosc 29 : 641 – 642 , 2017 6 Joaquim AF , Ghizoni E , Tedeschi H , Hsu WK , Patel AA : Management of degenerative cervical myelopathy—an update . Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) 62 : 886 – 894 , 2016 7 Kani KK , Chew FS : Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion: review and update for radiologists . Skeletal

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Dil V. Patel, Joon S. Yoo, Brittany E. Haws, Benjamin Khechen, Eric H. Lamoutte, Sailee S. Karmarkar and Kern Singh

W ith a focus on minimizing healthcare expenditures, the use of outpatient spinal surgery has increased 5-fold in the last few decades. 11 One particular procedure that has recently made a transition to the outpatient setting is anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). However, many surgeons are still hesitant to transition ACDFs away from traditional inpatient facilities due to concerns regarding complications such as airway compromise or hematomas, which may require emergency medical attention. 6 , 18 Thus, understanding the safety and efficiency of

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Maxwell Boakye, Praveen V. Mummaneni, Mark Garrett, Gerald Rodts and Regis Haid

rhBMP in conjunction with an anterior cervical plate promise to be an alternative way of achieving excellent arthrodesis in patients with cervical disc disease. Abbreviations used in this paper ACDF = anterior cervical discectomy and fusion ; BMP = bone morphogenetic protein ; CT = computerized tomography ; ICBG = iliac crest bone graft ; MR = magnetic resonance ; MVA = motor vehicle accident ; PEEK = polyetheretherketone ; rhBMP = recombinant human BMP

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Kenji Yagi, Hiroshi Nakagawa, Toshiyuki Okazaki, Shinsuke Irie, Toru Inagaki, Osamu Saito, Shinji Nagahiro and Koji Saito

the completion of the surgical procedure. Conclusions Severe dysphagia and odynophagia occur as complications of ACDF. In most instances, they are attributable to prevertebral soft-tissue edema accompanied by inflammatory responses, such as fever and an increase in the WBC count and CRP level. In other surgically treated patients, they are elicited by hematoma not associated with inflammation. References 1 Andrew SA , Sidhu KS : Airway changes after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion . J Spinal Disord Tech 20 : 577 – 581 , 2007 18046170 10

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Sehan Park, Dong-Ho Lee, Saemin Hwang, Soohyun Oh, Do-yon Hwang, Jae Hwan Cho, Chang Ju Hwang and Choon Sung Lee

Lee. Acquisition of data: Park, S Hwang, CJ Hwang. Analysis and interpretation of data: Park, Oh, D Hwang, Cho, CJ Hwang. Drafting the article: Park. Reviewed submitted version of manuscript: DH Lee, CS Lee. Statistical analysis: Park. References 1 Ba Z , Zhao W , Wu D , Shen B , Yu B , Wang Z : Box cages packed with local decompression bone were efficient in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion: five- to 10-year follow-up . Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 37 : E1260 – E1263 , 2012 2 Carreon LY , Djurasovic M , Glassman SD , Sailer P

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Matthew S. Erwood, Mark N. Hadley, Amber S. Gordon, William R. Carroll, Bonita S. Agee and Beverly C. Walters

R ecurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury is the most recognized neurological complication associated with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). 13 The frequency of RLN injury after ACDF surgery has been reported to be between 1% and 11% 4 , 6 , 15 , 16 and is usually temporary. Permanent injury has been reported to occur 1%–5% of the time. Injury to this nerve can occur via direct intraoperative sectioning, but more commonly, by indirect compression or tension. Mechanisms for indirect injury have been described, and include stretching as a

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Rafael De la Garza-Ramos, Risheng Xu, Seba Ramhmdani, Thomas Kosztowski, Mohamad Bydon, Daniel M. Sciubba, Jean-Paul Wolinsky, Timothy F. Witham, Ziya L. Gokaslan and Ali Bydon

F irst introduced by Smith, Robinson, and Cloward in 1958, 6 , 27 anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is currently one of the most commonly performed procedures in the cervical spine. 17 , 19 Usually reserved for patients with myelopathy and/or intractable radiculopathy secondary to age-related degeneration, ACDF most commonly addresses 1- or 2-level disease. 4 Three-level and 4-level ACDF procedures, however, are less common and there are limited data regarding their clinical outcomes, particularly for 4-level ACDF. 2 , 15 , 16 Furthermore

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Colin C. Buchanan, Nancy McLaughlin, Daniel C. Lu and Neil A. Martin

at the C1–2 level with contralateral head rotation. 2 Diagnosis is dependent on high clinical suspicion, and if left untreated, this condition may lead to strokes with permanent neurological deficits. 14 Multiple reports of subaxial RVAO exist in the literature. 3 , 9 , 15 , 17 , 18 , 22 , 37 The majority of these cases were secondary to spondylotic changes. Here, we report a case of RVAO caused by nondominant VA compression at a vertebral segment adjacent to a previously performed anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). This case is unique in both the

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Koichi Iwasaki, Taichi Ikedo, Hirokuni Hashikata and Hiroki Toda

F or anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), the iliac crest is the most popular source of autologous bone grafting. 1 , 8 , 13 However, a variety of donor-site complications have been reported. These include postoperative persistent pain and paresthesia, 16 , 17 lateral femoral cutaneous nerve injury, infection, hematoma, peritoneal perforation, visceral herniation, iliac fractures, and pelvic instability. 2 , 7 , 12 , 15 The incidence of these morbidities is reportedly 10%–39%. 2 , 7 , 12 , 15 To avoid the occurrence of such morbidities, some