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Edgar A. Bering Jr., Charles B. Wilson and Horace A. Norrell Jr.

selection would be enormously simplified by the development of suitable animal models. Ideally, the animal tumor should be a primary brain tumor, and two different animal models would be desirable. A primary brain tumor in a small inexpensive animal would allow the testing of large numbers of drugs. The value of a small animal screening system depends on a high degree of positive correlation between therapeutic action in the animal and in man. A larger animal, such as the rabbit, could be used for experimental therapeutic and diagnostic studies. Experiments with the

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Charles B. Wilson and Takao Hoshino

Chemotherapy Apart from deficient knowledge of biological and biochemical features of human glial tumors, the brain-tumor chemotherapist recognizes three other barriers to effective experimentation and treatment: 1) lack of a suitable animal model; 2) lack of a reliable means of drug selection for individual tumors; and 3) lack of a rapid system for precise measurement of tumor response. Studies using animal models have contributed significantly to advances in cancer chemotherapy. Animal models have served their greatest usefulness in the screening of promising drugs, in

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Gary G. Ferguson

. Experimental Evidence Experimental simulations of saccular aneurysms in animals have suggested that blood flow is likely to be turbulent in the human case. German and Black 10, 11 used dogs in which they sutured a vein-pouch graft to the wall of the common carotid artery. Turbulence in these side aneurysms was confirmed by the presence of a palpable thrill and audible bruit from the sac. Kikut 14 used the same model, and with the aid of magnification visualized turbulence by illuminating the sac with an intense light. These animal models are not exactly comparable to the

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Philippe Benda, Kuniyuki Someda, Janette Messer and William H. Sweet

stable permanent lines of glial tumors transplantable from rat to rat. This animal model is, we think, more suitable for the study of human gliomas than the standard murine ependymoblastoma used in many laboratories. Methods We injected 108 male rats with N-nitrosomethylurea, 5 mg/kg per week over a period of 8 months; 60 of them were randomly bred Wistar rats, 48 were inbred C. D. Fisher rats. All were 3 months of age at the start of the weekly intravenous injections. When rats showed signs of focal neurological or general systemic disease they were sacrificed

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Henry H. Schmidek, Surl L. Nielsen, Alan L. Schiller and Janette Messer

✓ Experimental glial tumors were induced by weekly intravenous injections of N-nitrosomethylurea (NNMU) in rats. The tumors included low- and high-grade gliomas of the astrocytic series and mixed gliomas. The histology of the tumors did not vary significantly with serial passage through tissue culture, subcutaneous implantation, or freezing. These neoplasms provide reliable animal models of brain tumors common to man.

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Charles Burton and Richard C. Black

Clin Neurophysiol 25: 557–569, 1968 6. Kepes JJ , Fritzlen TJ : Large chromaphobe adenoma with well-preserved pituitary gland: report of a case. Neurology (Minneap) 14 : 537 – 541 , 1964 Kepes JJ, Fritzlen TJ: Large chromaphobe adenoma with well-preserved pituitary gland: report of a case. Neurology (Minneap) 14: 537–541, 1964 7. Killam KF , Killam EK , Naquet R : An animal model of light sensitive epilepsy. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 22 : 497 – 513 , 1967 Killam KF

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J. Stovall King, Don L. Jewett and Howard R. Sundberg

he reported similar results with cisternal injections of hypertonic saline (up to 3000 mOsm/L) at room temperature. 8 In the work reported here, we have investigated the effects of saline of various osmolalities and temperatures on both A and C fibers of the dorsal spinal roots of the cat, in an attempt to separate the contributions of the different variables in an animal model. Materials and Methods Thirty cats selected only for weight (over 3.33 kg) were used in these experiments. With the cat under pentobarbital anesthesia and heated with a rheostat

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Diana Schneider

in the para- or quadriplegic suggests that motor performance is chaotic. However, further examination indicates that this is not the case. A knowledge of the basic physiological mechanisms operative in the spinal cord injury patient might be used to obtain nonsurgical relief from spasticity. For example, habituation of a flexor reflex by repetitive stimulation might alleviate spasticity in the muscle. Animal models such as those utilized by Dr. Gilman would facilitate the development of such therapeutic approaches. Spasticity occasionally becomes so severe that

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Sinsuke Hukuda and Charles B. Wilson

resemblance to those reported in human spondylotic myelopathy, we have not created an ideal model of this disease. Our present study simply indicates that ischemia compromises the ability of the spinal cord to withstand compression under defined experimental conditions. Experiments involving therapeutic maneuvers must await the creation of a better animal model of human spondylosis. Acknowledgments We wish to thank Dr. Nathan Malamud of the Langley Porter Neuropsychiatric Institute for the generous contribution of his laboratory and his time to this project

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Richard L. Rapport II and J. Kiffin Penry

advanced evidence that initiation of anticonvulsant therapy immediately following head injury may actually prevent the development of an epileptiform focus. This is emphasized in patients treated prophylactically and later withdrawn from medication. In one series, 24 no treated patients had seizures even after therapy was discontinued, but 20.8% of the controls developed epilepsy. Experiments using several animal models of posttraumatic epilepsy have also demonstrated a decreased propensity to convulse among prophylactically-treated subjects. The experimental evidence