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Kwan-Hon Chan, Kirpal S. Mann, Chung P. Yue, Y. W. Fan and Mary Cheung

M any previous studies on head injuries have emphasized that a traumatic intracranial hematoma (ICH) seldom develops in the absence of a skull fracture except in children. 8, 23, 24, 32 However, the majority of these reports regarded children as a single homogeneous group. In a previous retrospective study of 12,072 children, 20 analysis performed in relation to different stages of skull bone development showed that skull fracture became increasingly significant with the child's age in predicting ICH. In particular, adolescents within the age range of 11 to

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Yuki Yamamuro, Satoru Demura, Hideki Murakami, Satoshi Kato, Noritaka Yonezawa, Noriaki Yokogawa and Hiroyuki Tsuchiya

improved to 0°. Postoperative radiograph. C: Radiograph obtained 1 year postoperatively, showing the maintained correction of kyphosis to 0° and bone graft fusion. FIG. 4. Preoperative ( A ) and 1-year postoperative ( B ) lateral radiographs of the entire spine. Discussion Although there are many reports on the treatment of cervical kyphosis, few reports have addressed AICK ( Table 1 ). This condition was initially defined as cervical kyphotic deformity in adolescent patients without any cause such as a history of trauma, joint laxity, neuromuscular disease, tumor

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Yu Chen, Ruoxian Song, Weimin Huang and Zhengqi Chang

L umbar disc herniation (LDH) in children and adolescents is rare, representing 0.5% to 3% of all surgically treated cases of LDH. 3 , 10–12 , 14 It is recognized that this disorder relates to various factors, including trauma or intensive sports activities, 31 structural malformations of the spine, 5 and hereditary factors. 7 Pediatric LDH may be distinguished from adult LDH in that more adolescent patients exhibit movement limitation during the straight leg raise test (90%) due to greater nerve root tension than in adults. 7 , 25 Because conservative

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Kelly Russell, Erin Selci, Brian Black and Michael J. Ellis

R ecently , health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has emerged as an important outcome measure in clinical and research studies among children and adolescents with a variety of acute and chronic medical conditions. HRQOL is a multidimensional patient-reported outcome that aims to measure the effect of a medical condition on the patient’s perceptions of his or her physical, mental, and social functioning. 36 Among the suggested advantages of incorporating HRQOL measures into clinical practice and research is the opportunity to evaluate the “hidden morbidity” or

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Renee Phillips, Linda Ott, Byron Young and John Walsh

L ittle is known about the metabolic response or nutritional needs of the adolescent or child with severe head trauma. In contrast, the metabolic response and the nutritional requirements of the head-injured adult have been fairly well documented. 7, 19, 20, 28 Adult patients display increased oxygen consumption, increased urinary nitrogen excretion, and rapid weight loss. The purpose of this study was to examine whether children with head injury have metabolic responses similar to those of adults and to attempt to determine their nutritional requirements

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Rebekah Mannix, Jacqueline Berglass, Justin Berkner, Philippe Moleus, Jianhua Qiu, Lauren L. Jantzie, William P. Meehan III, Rachel M. Stanley and Shenandoah Robinson

progesterone after hypoxic-ischemic injury in immature rats, whereby the hormone worsened neuropathological injury. 21 Understanding whether progesterone has protective or harmful effects in children is important because the greatest public health burden of TBI occurs in this population. Here, we tested the hypothesis that, following controlled cortical impact (CCI), treatment with progesterone would improve functional and histopathological outcomes in adolescent mice. We included both male and female mice in the study, as most preclinical studies of progesterone have

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W. Alan C. Mutch, Michael J. Ellis, Lawrence N. Ryner, M. Ruth Graham, Brenden Dufault, Brian Gregson, Thomas Hall, Martin Bunge and Marco Essig

C hildren and adolescents who develop postconcussion syndrome (PCS) following sports-related concussion (SRC) represent a unique population with limited treatment options. 6 , 14 , 52 , 54 Although animal studies suggest that acute concussion is characterized by temporary alterations in neural activity, cellular metabolism, and cerebral blood flow (CBF), 8 , 21 , 22 the pathophysiological mechanisms mediating PCS remain unclear. Clinical studies suggest that clusters of PCS symptoms may be mediated by alterations in global brain metabolism or dysfunction

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Rachel K. Rowe, Jordan L. Harrison, Timothy W. Ellis, P. David Adelson and Jonathan Lifshitz

heterogeneous, each model addresses specific aspects of clinical pathophysiology. Together, the experimental brain injury literature applies injuries of mild to moderate severity in adult animals. Yet, this nomenclature translates into concussion or complicated concussion in the patient population. The approaches to induce brain injury and examine pathophysiology may be shared between adult and pediatric populations. Here, we outline the procedures to adapt this knowledge to the pediatric and adolescent rats. Fluid percussion injury (FPI) is among the most well characterized

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Humberto Ortiz-Suarez and Donald L. Erickson

P ituitary adenomas in adolescents have been previously described but only in studies of the general population. 1, 4–9, 13, 14, 16, 18 The symptoms described are similar to those of adults, and no special features of these tumors in young people have been distinguished. 13 A review of our cases and of the literature leads us to believe that there is a high incidence of extracapsular extension of this tumor in adolescents. We have seen 115 patients with pituitary adenomas during the past 15 years; of these, four were adolescents and all of them had invasive

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Carol B. Sedzimir and Julian Robinson

children and adolescents with intracranial hemorrhage. Clinical Material The present series was collected from 1954 through 1970 and is a part of a series of 1847 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage admitted under the overall charge of one of us (C.B.S.), thus contributing to the uniformity of management. This is not a definitive epidemiological study of juvenile intracranial hemorrhage; it will be seen however, that our follow-up analysis and mortality figures include all those who died in hospitals or at home. There are 75 children age 0 to 15 years (60.5%) and