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Chao-Hung Kuo, Peng-Yuan Chang, Jau-Ching Wu, Hsuan-Kan Chang, Li-Yu Fay, Tsung-Hsi Tu, Henrich Cheng and Wen-Cheng Huang

fusion. Symptomatic degenerative spondylolisthesis with spinal stenosis at L4–5 is one of the most frequent indications for lumbar interbody fusion. 14 , 20 Harms and Rolinger first described the surgical approach of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) in 1982. 9 Since then, the technique has been widely adapted and used worldwide. Furthermore, with technological improvements in recent years, the surgical approach of minimally invasive (MI)–TLIF has gained popularity and its effectiveness has been demonstrated for spondylolisthesis. 16 , 18 , 23 , 27 In

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William F. Lavelle, Nathaniel R. Ordway, Ali Araghi, Rudolph A. Buckley and Amir H. Fayyazi

T ransforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) is arguably the most widely used approach for lumbar interbody arthrodesis. 3 , 7 It was initially described by Harms in the early 1980s. 1 , 2 The TLIF method has become popular for achieving interbody fusion, in part by limiting the need for a second anterior approach and avoiding the risks associated with anterior lumbar surgery. There are concerns, however, about the amount of disc material that can be removed posteriorly. The ability to access the disc space posteriorly is limited by the presence of

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Samuel W. Terman, Timothy J. Yee, Darryl Lau, Adam A. Khan, Frank La Marca and Paul Park

H arms and Rolinger 13 first described transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) in 1982 to reduce thecal sac and nerve root retraction as compared with posterior lumbar interbody fusion. However, traditional open lumbar fusion is associated with significant soft-tissue morbidity. 15 , 16 , 35 , 36 In response, the minimally invasive (MI) TLIF was introduced as a means of limiting adjacent tissue injury. 10 Limited randomized 3 , 34 and observational 1 , 19 , 20 , 22 , 28 , 38 , 40 , 43 , 45 data have suggested that long-term pain reduction

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Lara W. Massie, Hesham Mostafa Zakaria, Lonni R. Schultz, Azam Basheer, Morenikeji Ayodele Buraimoh and Victor Chang

S pondylolisthesis is a common indication for spine surgery, with clinical evidence that fusion is an effective treatment for this pathology. 10 , 11 Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) has been shown to be an effective surgical procedure for spondylolisthesis, 4 , 9 , 13 , 22 and there is growing interest in whether minimally invasive surgery for TLIF (MIS TLIF) can provide the same benefits. 1 , 3 , 16 , 35 Although MIS TLIF is associated with a significant learning curve, increased use of fluoroscopy, and risk of nerve injury, 2 , 6 , 26–28 , 44

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Khalid M. I. Salem, Aditya P. Eranki, Scott Paquette, Michael Boyd, John Street, Brian K. Kwon, Charles G. Fisher and Marcel F. Dvorak

I n degenerative spondylolisthesis/low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis, surgical goals are to achieve neural decompression, bony fusion, and restoration of lumbar lordosis (LL). The transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) technique is widely used for these objectives. However, the correction/restoration of sagittal balance has been inconsistently reported and has varied from modest or insignificant at the levels instrumented 4 , 5 to substantial corrections of up to 20°. 2 , 12 Intraoperatively, surgeons typically rely on a cross-table lateral radiograph

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Andrew Kai-Hong Chan, Winward Choy, Catherine A. Miller, Leslie C. Robinson and Praveen V. Mummaneni

M inimally invasive (MI) techniques have long been advocated as a means to decrease blood loss, shorten hospitalization, and expedite postoperative recovery. These techniques have been applied to transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF) with promising results in well-selected patients. In an effort to further improve outcomes following MI-TLIF, some neurosurgeons have advocated the use of multimodal methods that avoid the use of general anesthesia. Wang and Grossman first reported the efficacy and safety of an approach utilizing a combination of

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Pedro S. Silva, Paulo Pereira, Pedro Monteiro, Pedro A. Silva and Rui Vaz

A mong the available options for the treatment of lumbar degenerative disease, TLIF by MI surgery has been described as advantageous compared with the standard open techniques for lumbar arthrodesis. 7 The potential benefit of the MI access arises from the reduction of iatrogenic soft tissue and muscle injury. 8 Single-level TLIF is by far the most common MI fusion procedure. The unilateral transforaminal access provides adequate exposure of the intervertebral disc with minimal neural retraction while the contralateral bony structures and supporting

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Chao-Hung Kuo, Wen-Cheng Huang, Jau-Ching Wu, Tsung-Hsi Tu, Li-Yu Fay, Ching-Lan Wu and Henrich Cheng

invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF), which can reduce blood loss and minimize soft tissue dissection during surgery with satisfactory clinical outcomes. 17 , 22 , 29 , 32 On the other hand, Dynesys dynamic stabilization (DDS; Zimmer Biomet) has also proven viable for lumbar degenerative disc disease (DDD) 4 , 11 , 34 , 37 and spondylolisthesis. 5 , 7 , 8 , 23 , 28 In fact, several published reports have demonstrated that the two strategies, MI-TLIF and DDS, have had similar clinical and functional outcomes for patients with low

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Yakov Gologorsky, Branko Skovrlj, Jeremy Steinberger, Max Moore, Marc Arginteanu, Frank Moore and Alfred Steinberger

T ransforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) has been increasing in popularity since its introduction by Harms and Rolinger in 1982. 14 , 15 The TLIF procedure involves a far-lateral transforaminal approach to the disc space through the vertebral foramen combined with posterior instrumentation. This procedure promotes circumferential fusion based on the principle of load sharing and provides anterior column support and a posterior tension band. TLIF is designed to restore normal lumbar lordosis, widen the neural foramen, restore disc height, and relieve

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Zeeshan Sardar, David Alexander, William Oxner, Stephan du Plessis, Albert Yee, Eugene K. Wai, D. Greg Anderson and Peter Jarzem

S ingle-level transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) is a commonly performed procedure used to treat degenerative conditions of the lumbar spine. During this procedure the intervertebral disc is removed and a spacer is inserted between the 2 vertebral bodies to achieve interbody fusion. Failure of fusion is a challenging problem that can lead to ongoing low-back pain and dependence on pain medication and adversely impact the ability to return to work. The historic gold standard for graft, iliac crest bone graft (ICBG), used to fill the