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Nico Sollmann, Dominik Weidlich, Barbara Cervantes, Elisabeth Klupp, Carl Ganter, Hendrik Kooijman, Claus Zimmer, Ernst J. Rummeny, Bernhard Meyer, Thomas Baum, Jan S. Kirschke and Dimitrios C. Karampinos

plexus or lumbosacral plexus (LSP), which are known to be particularly challenging for imaging. 4 , 10 , 11 , 21 , 36 However, most previous work has relied on qualitative MRN evaluations with a focus on the assessments of signal alterations on T2-weighted images, although MRN principally also offers the possibility for quantitative evaluation. 4 , 10 , 11 , 21 , 36 In this context, evaluation of nerves only based on qualitative parameters remains challenging and is regarded as subjective; in contrast, quantitative methods, such as T2 mapping, may reflect a more

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Harrison Kim, Tao Yu, Betul Cam-Etoz, Thomas van Groen, William J. Hubbard and Irshad H. Chaudry

used were ICP, CPP, and PbtO 2 . The imaging methods used were diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess diffuse axonal injury (DAI), 4 T2 mapping to determine the size of the edematous region, 24 and FDG-PET to measure brain glycolysis. 11 In addition, an open-field test was performed to assess the effect of EE-3-SO 4 on spontaneous exploratory behavior as a secondary injury of TBI. Methods Animal Study Design Nine groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were used (mean weight 318 ± 3 g; 10 ± 2 weeks old [± SE]); Groups 1–3 (4–5 rats per group) were used for measuring

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implantation, quantitative T2 mapping MRI and histology was used to evaluate disc regeneration. Results: Stromal cells demonstrated the capacity to differentiate down both the osteogenic and chondrogenic pathways when cultured in specific media. When exposed to normal defined media augmented with TGF-β3, BMP-4 and TIMP-2, chondrogenic lineage was also observed. Loss of disc height and endplate changes marked levels that received disc aspiration alone. Quantitative T2-mapping of the spines similarly demonstrated that the implantation of growth factor- or stromal cell

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C8-C9 rat caudal disc space, and stabilized with a custom ring-type external fixation device. At 1, 3, 7, 17, or 35 days (n=4–6 per time point), vertebra-DAPS-vertebra motion segments were analyzed via MRI T2 mapping and alcian blue (proteoglycans) and picrosirius red (collagen) stained histology. Motion segments were mechanically tested in compression (20 cycles, 0 to −3N/∼0.3 MPa) after 5 weeks in vivo to quantify toe and linear region modulus, as well as transition and maximum strain. Results: After 5 weeks in vivo, DAPS were mechanically functional, with

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Editorial

Convection-enhanced delivery

John H. Sampson, Raghu Raghavan, Martin Brady, Allan H. Friedman and Darell Bigner

RR : Effect of concentration on the accuracy of convective imaging distribution of a gadolinium-based surrogate tracer. Laboratory investigation . J Neurosurg [epub ahead of print May 27, Day 2011. DOI: 10.3171/2011.3.JNS101381] 2 Bobo RH , Laske DW , Akbasak A , Morrison PF , Dedrick RL , Oldfield EH : Convection-enhanced delivery of macromolecules in the brain . Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91 : 2076 – 2080 , 1994 3 Deoni SC , Rutt BK , Peters TM : Rapid combined T1 and T2 mapping using gradient recalled acquisition in the

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Jason R. Chalifoux, Nissa Perry, Joel S. Katz, Graham C. Wiggins, Jonathan Roth, Daniel Miles, Orrin Devinsky, Howard L. Weiner and Sarah S. Milla

in Patients With TSC Imaging at 7 T offers many advantages over conventional, lower field strength MRI. Increasing magnetic field strength allows higher resolution of brain structures. Previous studies have shown that images obtained with a 7-T scanner uncover brain lesions not previously seen on lower field strength MRI. 24 , 26 , 32 Interestingly, new studies have shown that quantitative T2* mapping at 7 T can reveal patterns of cytoarchitecture and the orientation of gray matter fiber tracts in the cortex, 7 suggesting even better visualization of deficits

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Kensuke Kawai, Ichiro Suzuki, Hiroki Kurita, Masahiro Shin, Nobutaka Arai and Takaaki Kirino

and fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery images. At 15 months post-GKS, the studies included routine T 1 - and T 2 -weighted images and T 2 mapping, but no T 1 -weighted images with contrast enhancement. The SPECT and FDG-PET scans obtained 7 months post-GKS were similar. The patient's intelligence at 7 months and his memory scores at 15 months post-GKS were normal. Operation and Postoperative Course After a 16-month observation period, the patient underwent anterior temporal lobectomy. Approximately the inferior two thirds of the amygdala and the anterior 2

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Min Ho Kong, Henry J. Hymanson, Kwan Young Song, Dong Kyu Chin, Yong Eun Cho, Do Heum Yoon and Jeffrey C. Wang

Waris E , Eskelin M , Hermunen H , Kiviluoto O , Paajanen H : Disc degeneration in low back pain. A 17-year follow-up study using magnetic resonance imaging . Spine 32 : 681 – 684 , 2007 32 Watanabe A , Benneker LM , Boesch C , Watanabe T , Obata T , Anderson SE : Classification of intervertebral disk degeneration with axial T2 mapping . AJR Am J Roentgenol 189 : 936 – 942 , 2007 33 Würgler-Hauri CC , Kalbarczyk A , Wiesli M , Landolt H , Fandino J : Dynamic neutralization of the lumbar spine after

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Xiaotong Fan, Brian D. Nelson, Yi Ai, David K. Stiles, Don M. Gash, Peter A. Hardy and Zhiming Zhang

properties, more than size, limiting convective distribution of virus-sized particles and viruses in the central nervous system . J Neurosurg 103 : 311 – 319 , 2005 6 Deoni SC , Rutt BK , Peters TM : Rapid combined T1 and T2 mapping using gradient recalled acquisition in the steady state . Magn Reson Med 49 : 515 – 526 , 2003 7 Gash DM , Zhang Z , Ai Y , Grondin R , Coffey R , Gerhardt GA : Trophic factor distribution predicts functional recovery in parkinsonian monkeys . Ann Neurol 58 : 224 – 233 , 2005 8 Gash DM , Zhang Z

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Richard Grondin, Yi Ai, Peter A. Hardy, Mark T. Butt, Brian D. Nelson, Jack D. Lemmon, David Bumcrot, Don M. Gash, Greg A. Gerhardt and Zhiming Zhang

, Rutt BK : High-resolution T1 and T2 mapping of the brain in a clinically acceptable time with DESPOT1 and DESPOT2 . Magn Reson Med 53 : 237 – 241 , 2005 10.1002/mrm.20314 9 Fan X , Nelson BD , Ai Y , Stiles DK , Gash DM , Hardy PA , : Continuous intraputamenal convection-enhanced delivery in adult rhesus macaques . J Neurosurg 123 : 1569 – 1577 , 2015 10.3171/2015.1.JNS132345 25932605 10 Gill SS , Patel NK , Hotton GR , O'Sullivan K , McCarter R , Bunnage M , : Direct brain infusion of glial cell line