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Brandon Sherrod, Michael Karsy, Jian Guan, Andrea A. Brock, Ilyas M. Eli, Erica F. Bisson and Andrew T. Dailey

T raumatic vertebral fracture and spinal cord injury (SCI) remain persistent components of overall trauma and result in significant mortality and morbidity. Traumatic compression fractures are the most common type of spine injury, and other types of spine fractures, including multicolumn fractures or flexion/distraction injuries, show a greater association with SCI. The estimated annual US incidence of SCI is 54 per 1,000,000 people, which amounts to 17,500 new cases per year. 10 , 24 Lifetime healthcare costs for a patient with SCI have been estimated at $1

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Yu-Chun Chen, Chao-Hung Kuo, Chieh-Ming Cheng and Jau-Ching Wu

followed by long periods of remission, to a slow and gradual decline or a stepwise decline. The speed of the decline could depend on the related pathologies, the cause of onset, timing of the diagnoses, and simply the duration of observation. There was an increased risk of spinal cord injury (SCI) in patients with CSM. In an East Asian cohort study of 14,140 patients hospitalized for CSM, the overall incidence of CSM-related hospitalization was 40.4 per million person-years, with male and elderly patients predominant. 70 Subsequent SCI was more likely to develop in

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Keyvan Davatgaran Taghipoor, Roya Habibi Arejan, Mohammad Reza Rasouli, Soheil Saadat, Mojgan Moghadam, Alexander R. Vaccaro and Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar

D espite the development of preventive strategies, PUs are the most frequent complication affecting patients with SCI. 5 The incidence of PUs is between 23 and 33% or more per year and up to 95% during a lifetime in adults with SCIs. 8 , 11 , 12 , 32 A PU is also the main cause of unplanned hospitalization in patients with SCIs, which results in increased hospital stay and expense. 5 Several studies have attempted to elucidate the risk factors associated with PU in patients with SCIs. 2 , 5 , 11 , 12 , 25 , 29 Although some valuable scoring systems have

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Frederik R. Teunissen, Bianca M. Verbeek, Thomas D. Cha and Joseph H. Schwab

spine. However, patients with DISH generally show nonmarginal syndesmophyte formation, ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament, and no involvement of the sacroiliac joint. 16 , 24 Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a common and serious complication after traumatic fracture of the ankylosed spine and has a large impact on morbidity and mortality. 5 , 12 , 19 The rate of SCI after traumatic fractures in patients with AS and DISH ranges between 19% and 97.3%. 7 , 15 , 19 , 23 However, the number of patients in previous studies on spinal fractures of the ankylosed

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Scott Falci, Charlotte Indeck and Dave Barnkow

T he prevalence of severe or disabling chronic pain after spinal cord injury (SCI) ranges from 20% to 77%. 1 , 2 , 15 , 18 , 19 , 21 These pains are believed to be of central origin and have been termed central deafferentation pains. 5 , 10 , 11 , 22 They always occur in regions of anesthesia or hypesthesia, and the most common pain descriptors include burning, sharp, electrical, stabbing, and pins-and-needles sensations. SCI central pain can be perceived at the dermatomal level of injury (at-level pain) or at dermatomal levels below the level of injury (below

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Ji Yong Kim, Chang Hyun Oh, Xian Huang, Moon Hang Kim, Seung Hwan Yoon, Kil Hwan Kim, Hyeonseon Park, Hyung Chun Park, So Ra Park and Byung Hyune Choi

, macrophages, and dendritic cells. 16 , 20 , 22 , 26 Authors of recent studies have reported that GM-CSF prevented apoptotic cell death and adhesion not only in hematological cells but also in neuronal cells. 4 , 9 , 14 These findings suggest that GM-CSF can be used for the treatment of SCI. For neuropathic pain in SCI, various neurotransmitters, such as glutamate, GABA, and 5-HT, are released and the Na + channel is opened. 25 These conditions were induced by abnormal sprouting of axons and nerve conduction mediated by CGRP-positive fibers, pain-related peptides, and in

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Maxwell Boakye, Barbara C. Leigh and Andrea C. Skelly

S pinal cord injury frequently leads to alterations in ambulatory, cardiovascular, hand, and many other bodily functions that affect QOL. An assessment of SCI outcomes should therefore include patient-reported QOL outcomes as well as the standard clinical and functional outcomes. Developing and incorporating patient-reported QOL outcomes in medical research are priorities of the NIH, as evidenced by the creation of the PROMIS ( http://www.nihpromis.org/ ). The efficacy of interventions can be measured in terms of their impact on health-related QOL outcomes

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Nobuo Senbokuya, Hideyuki Yoshioka, Takashi Yagi, Yuji Owada and Hiroyuki Kinouchi

S pinal cord injury (SCI) frequently results in permanent neurological dysfunction below the injury site. Accordingly, this disastrous injury has devastating consequences for patients, and the care requires enormous expense to society: The estimated lifetime costs for a patient exceed $4 million, and the annual economic burden of traumatic SCI is estimated at about $14.5 billion in the United States. 25 , 32 Despite many promising experimental studies, there are still no available satisfactory treatments that eliminate the spinal cord damage and improve

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Jichao Ye, Yi Qin, Yong Tang, Mengjun Ma, Peng Wang, Lin Huang, Rui Yang, Keng Chen, Chaopeng Chai, Yanfeng Wu and Huiyong Shen

in stem cell transplantation therapy due to their self-replicating ability and multidirectional differentiation potential. 18 Many studies have reported that NSC transplantation promoted the recovery of nerve function after spinal cord injury (SCI) in both rodent and nonhuman primate SCI models. For example, McDonald et al. transplanted neural differentiated mouse ESCs into rat spinal cords 9 days after traumatic injury. The authors observed that transplanted ESCs differentiated into astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and neurons, thus promoting recovery in the injured

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Michael G. Fehlings and Allyson Tighe

There are few clinical conditions as physically and psychologically devastating as traumatic SCI. The nature of the adult human central nervous system is such that recovery from a severe SCI is relatively uncommon, and most patients are left with a permanent disability. There are almost 300,000 people in North America living with SCI and over 20,000 new injuries every year. 1 , 5 The treatment, care, rehabilitation, and community integration of these patients costs the health care system over $9.7 billion a year in the US alone. 1 The discovery and