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Richard Leblanc

-Martin Charcot 2 and his student Albert Pitres 3 in a more serene atmosphere, through 3 papers published between 1877 and 1879 and 2 books published in 1883 and 1895. 4–8 This paper describes Charcot and Pitres' discovery of the human cortical motor zone and its somatotopic organization, and argues that they played a determining role in the origins of 19th-century neurosurgery. Methods Charcot and Pitres' publications on motor localization, and those of others written in French on the same topic, have been consulted and pertinent passages translated into English for

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Lt. Colonel C. G. de Gutiérrez-Mahoney

had long since vanished, I suddenly faradised the brachial plexus, when the patient said at once, ‘My hand is there again. It is bent all up and hurts me.’ It is of course impossible that the motor nerves stimulated should convey any impression centrally, and we must therefore conclude that irritation of sensory trunks may occasion impressions of muscular motion in the sensorium. The phenomena of the phantom vary in nature and in incidence. Weir Mitchell 10 found that 95 per cent of patients experience phantom limb after amputation, Pitres 13 97 per cent

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Rodrigo Carrasco-Moro, Ines Castro-Dufourny, Juan S. Martínez-San Millán, Lidia Cabañes-Martínez, and José M. Pascual

the body caused by cerebral hemisphere lesions on the same side… — Jean-Martin Charcot and Albert Pitres, 1895 11 Modern intracranial surgery began in the closing decades of the 19th century, stimulated by the development of localizationist theories that, along with progress in the fields of antisepsis and anesthesia, allowed intrepid surgeons to design accurate approaches to cerebral lesions. Nevertheless, expanding intracranial lesions occasionally produced focal neurological signs not directly related to the location of the mass. These paradoxical clinical

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Mark C. Preul

accurate, physiological and anatomical description of ipsilateral hemiparesis that involved the misconception that the condition is extremely rare. The authors educate the neurosurgery audience that the neurosurgical heritage of cerebral localization is not found only in Horsley, Cushing, Dandy, and Penfield; our expertise as surgical neurologists or neurological surgeons also harkens to Albert Pitres, Jean-Martin Charcot, Paul Flechsig, Charles-Édouard Brown-Séquard, Constantin von Monakow, Adolf Meyer, Albert Knapp, Arnold Groeneveld, and Georges Schaltenbrand. The

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Franck-Emmanuel Roux and Michel Trémoulet

, 35 speech expression, 2, 15, 16, 34 or comprehension. 7, 15, 32 Cases of dissociation in writing have also been described when the language used had a different writing system, as in Japanese Kana or Kanji characters. 35 Finally, in 1895, the pioneer of studies in bilingual persons, Pitres 28 noted that it was in the language with which the patient was the most familiar that the subject recovered best (the Pitres law). All these observations about selective impairment or recovery have led to the hypothesis that multiple languages could be represented, at least

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Robert H. Wilkins

from such gross disease as tumour. In some, there was local softening. When, however, there was also double optic neuritis, such gross disease as tumour might be confidently predicted. Even yet there was not evidence of exact position. Dr. Hughlings Jackson had not yet seen a case of epileptiform seizure caused by disease outside Ferrier's region; but such cases had been recorded by great authorities. Hence, repeating in effect what Charcot and Pitres had urged, we required also some local persisting paralysis of the part convulsed—persisting, since temporary

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J. Lobo Antunes

in his own investigations. He comments that much time and work might have been saved had he been aware of previous investigations. Neurological diagnosis in Moniz's days was based on anatomical and pathological correlations, much of which had been established by the French school. Moniz trained with Pitres and regularly attended the clinics of Babinsky, Pierre Marie and Dejerine in Paris. It was in Paris that Moniz met Sicard, who, with Forestier, had introduced lipiodol myelography in 1921. 23 The work of Dandy 4 was well known in Europe, but ventriculography

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Vincent Lubrano, Franck-Emmanuel Roux, and Jean-François Démonet

of handedness: the Edinburgh inventory. Neuropsychologia 9: 97–113, 1971 31. Penfield W , Roberts L : Speech and Brain-Mechanisms. Princeton : Princeton University Press , 1959 Penfield W, Roberts L: Speech and Brain-Mechanisms. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1959 32. Pitres A : Considérations sur l'Agraphie. Revue Méd 4 : 855 – 873 , 1884 Pitres A: Considérations sur l'Agraphie. Revue Méd 4: 855–873, 1884 33. Rapcsak SZ , Arthur SA , Rubens AB

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Mark Hornyak, Martin H. Weiss, Don H. Nelson, and William T. Couldwell

, Paul FT : Notes of a case of acromegaly treated by operation . Brit Med J 2 : 1421 – 1423 , 1893 19 Chapuis Y , Pitre J , Conti F , Abboud B , Pras-Jude N , Luton JP : Role and operative risk of bilateral adrenalectomy in hypercorticolism . World J Surg 20 : 775 – 780 , 1996 20 Chen JC , Amar AP , Choi S , Singer P , Couldwell

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Peter J. Koehler and Eelco F. M. Wijdicks

have another explanation. Interestingly, he applied the recent cortical localization theory to explain certain types of oculomotor lesions. Referring to Charcot, Pitres, Ferrier, Hitzig, and several others, von Bergmann suggested that the frontal eye field not only served conjugated gaze reactions ( Fig. 3 ): “Approximately at 1 the areas are situated from which the oculomotor will be affected (elevation of the upper lids, movement of the ball, dilation of the pupils, turning of the head to the contralateral side).” Most probably, he was confused between the general