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Yagiz Ugur Yolcu, Waseem Wahood, Abdullah T. Eissa, Mohammed Ali Alvi, Brett A. Freedman, Benjamin D. Elder and Mohamad Bydon

P latelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a biological agent that is obtained by centrifuging a sample of typically autologous blood and retrieving a concentrate containing platelets and plasma components. 1 PRP contains a plethora of growth factors and cytokines through the secretions of platelets. 2 , 3 Factors expressed by PRP were found to be involved in the growth of mostly connective tissue–related structures, raising the hypothesis that it will help in growth and regeneration of connective tissue, potentially within the musculoskeletal system. Following the

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John W. Peterson, Lawrence Roussos, Byung-Duk Kwun, John D. Hackett, Christopher J. Owen and Nicholas T. Zervas

passively at 37°C for 45 to 90 minutes, and supernatant plasma with platelets and white blood cells (WBC's) was harvested and pooled in sterile siliconized glass tubes. If initial sedimentation rate was too slow, then whole blood was centrifuged for 2 minutes at 100 to 150 G and supernatants were harvested and pooled as above. Plasma containing platelets, WBC's, and trace erythrocytes was then centrifuged for 2 minutes at 125 G and the supernatant was again harvested. Centrifugation was repeated to yield the final platelet-rich plasma (PRP), the cellular composition of

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Erhan Emel, Selma Sönmez Ergün, Dilcan Kotan, Esra Başar Gürsoy, Yeşim Parman, Asli Zengin and Asiye Nurten

been shown to increase the rate of axon regeneration after sciatic nerve crush or freeze injury. 22 , 40 Platelets contain various growth factors, such as PDGF, TGF-β, PF4, VEFG, EGF, PDEGF, ECGF, and IGF. When platelets are activated, they release these factors, which play important biological roles in various conditions. These growth factors act locally to recruit undifferentiated cells to the site of injury, trigger mitosis in these cells, and induce angiogenesis. Application of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) provides the nerve with a medium enriched with platelet

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Marc R. Mayberg, Tomohisa Okada and Don H. Bark

structural changes in the vessel wall consistent with those observed in cerebral vasospasm after SAH. 18 In the current experiment, whole blood was fractionated into four constituent components: washed erythrocytes (red blood cells, RBC's), leukocytes (white blood cells, WBC's) contained in platelet-rich plasma (PRP), Hb-containing erythrocyte cytosol, and erythrocyte membranes. A model similar to that employed for whole blood was used to apply selectively each fractionated blood component or commercially available porcine Hb to the MCA adventitia in pigs for 10 days to

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Marc Manix, Piyush Kalakoti, Miriam Henry, Jai Thakur, Richard Menger, Bharat Guthikonda and Anil Nanda

obtained from surgery. Creutzfeld-Jakob disease is classified as familial, sporadic, or acquired. Regardless of the type, the disease has a rapid clinical course that is uniformly fatal. There are some consistencies on physical examination, radiographic studies, and EEG, but the most common form is sporadic CJD (sCJD), and it follows a theme of heterogeneity. The infectious agent is the abnormal scrapie form (PrP Sc ) of the host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrP C ) that causes a posttranslational modification of PrP C into the disease form, accumulating in the

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Nobuyuki Ozaki and Sean Mullan

tension for 90 minutes. 34, 35 During that time, the fluid was replaced every 15 minutes. A low concentration of KCl (20 mM) was added to test the reactivity of the strips initially. Contractions were displayed on the ink-writing oscillograph. † The contractile activity of the following blood fractions was evaluated: 1) platelet-rich plasma (PRP); 2) platelet-poor plasma (PPP); 3) intact red cells (IRC); 4) lysed red cells (LRC); and 5) serum. Blood was taken from the femoral artery of the dog via a polyethylene catheter and placed in siliconized tubes containing

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David J. Bonda, Sunil Manjila, Prachi Mehndiratta, Fahd Khan, Benjamin R. Miller, Kaine Onwuzulike, Gianfranco Puoti, Mark L. Cohen, Lawrence B. Schonberger and Ignazio Cali

, speech impairment, & dementia Spongiform degen w/different size of vacuoles, microplaques in cerebellar molecular layer; round & loose clusters of coarse PrP granules in cerebrum Degen = degenerative; FFI = fatal familial insomnia; FI = fatal insomnia; GSS = Gerstmann-Schäussler-Scheinker syndrome; M/V = methionine/valine heterozygosity; Sx = symptoms; VPSPr = variably protease-sensitive prionopathy. * Dura mater graft–associated CJD. † Unicentric round plaque with a dense eosinophilic core and radiating spicules. ‡ Referred to fCJD E200K-129M

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Joshua D. Bell, Theresa Currier Thomas, Elliot Lass, Jinglu Ai, Hoyee Wan, Jonathan Lifshitz, Andrew J. Baker and R. Loch Macdonald

cell death, with greater fluorescence values corresponding to greater propidium iodide reactivity and therefore cell death. All parameters were kept constant by using the same protocol for all groups (the scanning area remained constant, as did the duration). Cells were then incubated for 1 hour with thrombin-activated plateletrich plasma (TA-PrP, with or without glutamate receptor antagonists), washed with buffer, and propidium iodide readings were taken 20 hours later. Cell death in each condition was compared with wells exposed to 1-mM glutamate for 1 hour, which

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Tomio Sasaki, Sei-itsu Murota, Susumu Wakai, Takao Asano and Keiji Sano

% phosphomolybdic acid in ethanol and autoradiography. PGI 2 Biosynthetic Activity in Basilar Artery of Dogs with SAH The PGI 2 biosynthetic activity was examined as described by Okuma, et al. 30 Human blood was withdrawn into a 3.8% solution of sodium citrate (9:1, vol/vol). Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was prepared by centrifugation of citrated blood at 200 G for 10 minutes at room temperature. A sample of 0.2 ml of PRP was aggregated at 37°C in a platelet aggregation tracer ‡ with 20 µl of ADP, at a final concentration of 100 µM. Platelet aggregation was monitored

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Christopher C. Gallen, Barry J. Schwartz, Richard D. Bucholz, Ghaus Malik, Gregory L. Barkley, Joseph Smith, Howard Tung, Brian Copeland, Leonard Bruno, Sam Assam, Eugene Hirschkoff and Floyd Bloom

of view to permit scaling of distances. The gyrus posterior to the somatosensory phase reversal was identified as the postcentral gyrus for later comparison with MSI somatosensory localizations. TABLE 1 Results of MSI and intraoperative monitoring * Case No. Age (yrs), Sex Diagnosis Intraoperative Recording PRP Method (cm) 1 52, M tumor, postradiotherapy single electrode & 0.4  surface EEG 2 32, F glioma w/ 20-contact 1.2  seizures  sheet 3 59, M glioblastoma