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Amitabh Gupta and Anthony E. Lang

, 2005 5 Nasreddine ZS , Phillips NA , Bédirian V , Charbonneau S , Whitehead V , Collin I , : The Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MoCA: a brief screening tool for mild cognitive impairment . J Am Geriatr Soc 53 : 695 – 699 , 2005 6 Ravdin LD , Katzen HL , Jackson AE , Tsakanikas D , Assuras S , Relkin NR : Features of gait most responsive to tap test in normal pressure hydrocephalus . Clin Neurol Neurosurg 110 : 455 – 461 , 2008 7 Relkin N , Marmarou A , Klinge P , Bergsneider M , Black PM : Diagnosing

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Erez Nossek, Idit Matot, Tal Shahar, Ori Barzilai, Yoni Rapoport, Tal Gonen, Gal Sela, Akiva Korn, Daniel Hayat and Zvi Ram

, MoCA: a brief screening tool for mild cognitive impairment . J Am Geriatr Soc 53 : 695 – 699 , 2005 30 Olsen KS : The asleep-awake technique using propofol-remifentanil anaesthesia for awake craniotomy for cerebral tumours . Eur J Anaesthesiol 25 : 662 – 669 , 2008 31 Palese A , Skrap M , Fachin M , Visioli S , Zannini L : The experience of patients undergoing awake craniotomy: in the patients' own words. A qualitative study . Cancer Nurs 31 : 166 – 172 , 2008 32 Patton JH , Stanford MS , Barratt ES : Factor structure of

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Michael J. Bonares, Peter Egeto, Airton Leonardo de Oliveira Manoel, Kristin A. Vesely, R. Loch Macdonald and Tom A. Schweizer

Cognitive Assessment, MoCA: a brief screening tool for mild cognitive impairment . J Am Geriatr Soc 53 : 695 – 699 , 2005 23 Nieuwkamp DJ , Setz LE , Algra A , Linn FH , de Rooij NK , Rinkel GJ : Changes in case fatality of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage over time, according to age, sex, and region: a meta-analysis . Lancet Neurol 8 : 635 – 642 , 2009 24 Ohue S , Oka Y , Kumon Y , Ohta S , Sakaki S , Hatakeyama T , : Importance of neuropsychological evaluation after surgery in patients with unruptured cerebral

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Jill L. Ostrem, Nathan Ziman, Nicholas B. Galifianakis, Philip A. Starr, Marta San Luciano, Maya Katz, Caroline A. Racine, Alastair J. Martin, Leslie C. Markun and Paul S. Larson

, Zrinzo L , Foltynie T , Olmos IA , Taylor C , Hariz MI , : MRI-guided subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation without microelectrode recording: can we dispense with surgery under local anaesthesia? . Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 89 : 318 – 325 , 2011 20 Nasreddine ZS , Phillips NA , Bédirian V , : The Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MoCA: A brief screening tool for mild cognitive impairment . J Am Geriatr Soc 53 : 695 – 699 , 2005 21 Odekerken VJ , van Laar T , Staal MJ , Mosch A , Hoffmann CF , Nijssen PC

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Jeffrey A. Herron, Margaret C. Thompson, Timothy Brown, Howard J. Chizeck, Jeffrey G. Ojemann and Andrew L. Ko

impacted his activities of daily life, particularly when eating and drinking. The patient did not drink alcohol and did not notice that alcohol improved his tremor. His family history was unknown as he was adopted. Propranolol did not have significant benefit, and a trial of primidone was not tolerated because of side effects. On neurological examination, his affect and speech were normal. He scored 29/30 on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). He had no hypomimia or hypophonia. Cranial nerves II–XII were intact. He had no motor or sensory deficits. He had no ataxia

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Roman Schniepp, Raimund Trabold, Alexander Romagna, Farhoud Akrami, Kristin Hesselbarth, Max Wuehr, Aurelia Peraud, Thomas Brandt, Marianne Dieterich and Klaus Jahn

, and vestibular testing. Cognition was assessed using either the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) or the Montréal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). 30 , 43 Lumbar Puncture Procedures If a suspected diagnosis of iNPH could not be rejected, patients underwent an LP procedure, during which 30–50 ml of CSF was removed. Gait performance was evaluated before the LP (time point [TP]0), 1–8 hours after the LP (TP1), 24 hours after LP (TP2), 48 hours after LP (TP3), and 72 hours after LP (TP4). Gait Assessment Gait performance was measured using a pressure

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Peter Egeto, R. Loch Macdonald, Tisha J. Ornstein and Tom A. Schweizer

.10.044 21704932 31 Wells G , Shea B , O'Connell D , Peterson J , Welch V , Losos M , : The Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS) for assessing the quality of nonrandomised studies in meta-analyses. . Ottawa Hospital. ( http://www.ohri.ca/programs/clinical_epidemiology/oxford.asp ) [Accessed January 18, 2017 32 Wong GKC , Lam SW , Wong A , Mok V , Siu D , Ngai K , : Early MoCA-assessed cognitive impairment after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and relationship to 1-year functional outcome . Transl Stroke Res 5 : 286 – 291 , 2014 10.1007/s

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Michael D. Staudt, Stephen H. Pasternak, Manas Sharma, Sachin K. Pandey, Miguel F. Arango, David M. Pelz and Stephen P. Lownie

demonstrated profound fatigue and somnolence, and described a dull, orthostatic headache. Most significantly, he developed cognitive impairment and complete loss of short-term memory. He was initially assessed and subsequently followed in the Cognitive Neurology Clinic of Parkwood Hospital, where he was regularly evaluated using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA; Table 1 , Fig. 1A and C ). An MR image of his head demonstrated classic findings consistent with intracranial hypotension ( Fig. 2A and B ), and sequential SV

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Robert F. James, Nicolas K. Khattar, Zaid S. Aljuboori, Paul S. Page, Elaine Y. Shao, Lacey M. Carter, Kimberly S. Meyer, Michael W. Daniels, John Craycroft, John R. Gaughen Jr., M. Imran Chaudry, Shesh N. Rai, D. Erik Everhart and J. Marc Simard

LDIVH, resulting in lessened tissue injury and decreased transsynaptic apoptosis. 46 Given the report that unfractionated heparin reduces symptomatic cerebral vasospasm and vasospasm-related infarctions, we evaluated its effects on cognitive outcomes. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is an alternative assessment to the Mini–Mental State Examination (MMSE) and, according to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders, is currently considered the gold standard for rapid cognitive screening in the setting of stroke. 30 Studies have demonstrated that MoCA

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Marc N. Gallay, David Moser and Daniel Jeanmonod

preoperatively, and all patients had normal electrolyte and coagulation status. Monitoring for late side-effects was continued for at least 3 months following the procedure for all patients except 1 ET patient who was lost to follow-up after an uneventful early postoperative course with 90% contralateral tremor relief. In the preoperative assessment, the Mini–Mental State Examination (MMSE) was replaced after the first 29 cases by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). These cognitive tests were performed before, 1–2 days after, and 1 year after the procedure; postoperative