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Eric Suero Molina, Michael P. Catalino, and Edward R. Laws

A doctor must be a traveler. — Paracelsus (1493–1541) Harvey Cushing (1869–1939) dedicated most of his efforts to teaching during the period when World War I (WWI) had just ended, and the first meeting of the Society of Neurological Surgeons had already occurred. In 1912, Cushing became chief of surgery at the new Peter Bent Brigham Hospital (PBBH) in Boston, Massachusetts. His global influence, however, was not established until 1920, when he began encouraging international visitors to PBBH, who themselves were essential in establishing a

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Cormac O. Maher, Steven R. Buchman, Edward O'Hara, and Aaron A. Cohen-Gadol

, moreover in the presence of fourteen deaths in thirtythree cases, are stains on your hands and sins on your souls. No ocean of soap and water will clean those hands, no power of corrosive sublimate will disinfect the souls. 11 The high mortality rate associated with craniectomy for craniosynostosis during this period made this operation especially controversial during the early years of Harvey Cushing's practice. Cushing's Early Opinions on Cranial Deformity Surgery Secondary microcephaly, resulting from primary brain abnormalities rather than craniosynostosis

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Ossama Al-Mefty, Edward R. Laws, and A. John Popp

today can strengthen our sense of purpose. From this vantage, we explore the origins of Harvey Cushing’s “special field” of surgical neurology and developments prior to and subsequent to Cushing’s contributions that celebrate our specialty and also support our confidence in neurosurgery’s future viability. One should consider Harvey Cushing’s monumental contribution to medicine as not merely the technical advances of operating on an organ—the brain—but, more importantly, studying the scientific substrate of neurological diseases and, where appropriate, applying

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Thomas M. Keller

The advance of neurological surgery is greatly impeded by the prevailing impression in regard to its dangers and general futility—an impression due in large measure to the unsuccessful attempts of the untrained and inexpert. 9 I n September, 1901, the 32-year-old Harvey Cushing began a surgical practice at Johns Hopkins Hospital. After completing his surgical residency under Chief of Surgery William Stewart Halsted, Cushing spent a year abroad studying principles and techniques in the clinics of Victory Horsley, Theodor Kocher, and Charles Sherrington

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Courtney Pendleton, Allan J. Belzberg, Robert J. Spinner, and Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa

T horacic outlet syndrome (TOS) remains a challenging entrapment syndrome to diagnose and treat, despite description of its symptoms dating back centuries. Neurogenic TOS, caused by compression of the lower trunk of the brachial plexus, is known to physicians and surgeons interested in the peripheral nervous system. Although descriptions of cervical ribs and their contributions to brachial plexus compression and TOS have been described since Vesalius, 12 with whom Dr. Harvey Cushing (1869–1939) was most certainly familiar, cervical rib resection for treatment

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Nils Hansson and Thomas Schlich

Harvey Cushing (1869–1939), Michael Bliss draws attention to a hitherto unknown aspect of Cushing's reputation in the scientific community. 2 This paper aims at filling this gap and takes a first look at the question as to why Cushing did not receive the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. As a main source we have gathered files from the Nobel Prize archive in Stockholm, a remarkable repository that contains correspondence, reports, and dossiers of the nominations of senior and junior physicians from around the world. Every year all professors of medicine in

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Courtney Pendleton, Jordina Rincon-Torroella, Ziya L. Gokaslan, George I. Jallo, and Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa

the spinal cord during resection. 19 Although Harvey Cushing is known for his contributions to brain tumor surgery, his contributions to spine surgery, 7 , 16–18 , 28 particularly for tumors of the spinal column, have only recently come to light. 17 , 28 Cushing was fluent in German and French, and it is possible that he read published accounts of these cases during his early career. In 1888, Gowers and Horsley published in a European journal a very detailed description on the technique they used in the first recorded resection of a spinal meningioma. 21 In

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Mahdi Malekpour and Aaron A. Cohen-Gadol

When an experience such as this is now looked back upon, it seems that only stupidity could have so long delayed our better understanding of these lesions. H arvey C ushing 5 Harvey Cushing (1869–1939) is considered the father of modern neurosurgery because of his contributions that established it as a distinct discipline. He began his career when neurological surgery was considered a futile endeavor—most cases were deemed inoperable because of their high associated mortality rates. Yet he persisted, pioneering techniques that formed the basis of our

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Samuel H. Greenblatt

straightforward historical explanation. Hypothesis and Method Since the above descriptors of “brain surgeon” seem to find their personification in Harvey Cushing, perhaps they are derived directly from him. His standing and reputation among neurosurgeons are certainly consistent with this hypothesis. The historiographical problem, then, is to identify how Cushing was viewed by the general public in his own time. Fortunately for the historian, Cushing lived in an era, unlike ours, when the printed word was still a principal medium for the transmission of ideas within the

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Mark C. Preul and William Feindel

W ilder Penfield and Harvey Cushing created legacies to neurosurgery, both in terms of the physicians they trained and in their philosophical approach to the field. Although they maintained contact for many years, their biographies provide only brief comments on their relationship, without any thorough examination of their personal correspondence. 3–7 Both men may have had some sense of their destiny and of the importance of their work to posterity, because each carefully saved records, notes, and letters, and each wrote autobiographical accounts. Although