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Hiromichi Ando, Masanao Saio, Noriyuki Tamakawa, Naoyuki Ohe, Takashi Nakayama, Hai Yu, Yasuhiko Kaku, Toru Iwama, Jun Shinoda, Noboru Sakai and Tsuyoshi Takami

. Br J Exp Pathol 29: 58–69, 1948 29. Paul DB , Barth RF , Yang W , et al : B7.1 expression by the weakly immunogenic F98 rat glioma does not enhance immunogenicity. Gene Ther 7 : 993 – 999 , 2000 Paul DB, Barth RF, Yang W, et al: B7.1 expression by the weakly immunogenic F98 rat glioma does not enhance immunogenicity. Gene Ther 7: 993–999, 2000 30. Radoja S , Saio M , Frey AB : CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes are primed for Fas-mediated activation-induced cell death but are not

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Frank Willi Floeth, Dirk Pauleit, Hans-Jörg Wittsack, Karl Josef Langen, Guido Reifenberger, Kurt Hamacher, Martina Messing-Jünger, Karl Zilles, Friedrich Weber, Walter Stummer, Hans-Jakob Steiger, Gabriele Woebker, Hans-Wilhelm Müller, Heinz Coenen and Michael Sabel

into proteins. 20, 31, 59 Transport experiments with FET in F98 rat glioma cells revealed a sodium-dependent transport via system B 0,+ in addition to sodium-independent transport via system L. Thus, the transport characteristics of FET in this cell line were similar to those of MET. 31 In the present study, the mean lesion/brain tissue ratio of FET uptake was significantly greater for gliomas than for nonneoplastic lesions. The sensitivity and specificity of the FET uptake for the distinction of neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions were 88% and 88%, respectively

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Ilker Y. Eyüpoglu, Eric Hahnen, Alexandra Heckel, Florian A. Siebzehnrübl, Rolf Buslei, Rudolf Fahlbusch and Ingmar Blümcke

✓ Rapid growth and diffuse brain infiltration are hallmarks of malignant gliomas. The underlying molecular pathomechanisms of these tumors, however, remain to be determined. The authors present a novel glioma invasion model that allows researchers to monitor consecutively tumor cell proliferation and migration in an organotypic brain environment. Enhanced green fluorescent protein—labeled F98 rat glioma cells were implanted into slice cultures obtained from a rat hippocampus, and tumor growth was microscopically documented up to 20 days in vitro. Invasion along radially oriented migratory streams could be observed 5 days after implantation of rat F98, human U87MG, and mouse GL261 glioma cells, whereas human Be(2)c neuroblastoma cells and mouse HT22 hippocampal neurons failed to invade the brain parenchyma. Following implantation of F98 glioma cells into the entorhinal cortex, cell death was observed within the infiltrated brain parenchyma as well as in the neuroanatomically connected dentate gyrus. Application of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK801 to the culture medium significantly reduced neuronal degeneration in the dentate gyrus, whereas the a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptor antagonist GYKI 52466 inhibited peritumoral cytotoxicity. This new model allows researchers to address in a systematic manner the molecular pathways of brain invasion as well as specific tumor—host interactions such as necrosis.

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Henry M. Smilowitz, Jakob Weissenberger, Joachim Weis, Judith D. Brown, Rachel J. O'Neill and Jean A. Laissue

confers immunogenic properties to the Tu-9648 and Tu-2449 cell lines as well, because subcutaneous leg inoculations with irradiated Tu-9648 and Tu-2449 cells also protect mice against subsequent intracerebral cell challenge. These results are in sharp contrast to results obtained with the F98 rat glioma cell line, in which similar subcutaneous injections of irradiated cells provided no protection to viable cell challenge (Smilowitz, unpublished results). The results we have obtained with the Tu cell lines are generally similar to the results obtained with the 9L

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I-Mei Siu, Betty M. Tyler, James X. Chen, Charles G. Eberhart, Ulrich-Wilhelm Thomale, Alessandro Olivi, George I. Jallo, Gregory J. Riggins and Gary L. Gallia

glioblastoma was mechanically dissociated, passed through a 40-μm filter and transferred into complete neurosphere media, which consisted of serumfree media containing 20 ng/ml EGF and 10 ng/ml FGF-2 and maintained at 37°C and 5% CO 2 . Neurospheres were passaged by trituration and seeded into fresh media; the cultures were serially passaged for more than 25 passages. The F98 Rat Glioma Cell Line The F98 rat glioma cell line was maintained in DMEM supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and 100 μg/ml penicillin-streptomycin. Flow Cytometry The glycoprotein CD133

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Wesley Hsu, I-Mei Siu, Gustavo Pradilla, Ziya L. Gokaslan, George I. Jallo and Gary L. Gallia

. Photomicrographs of an axial section of a rat spinal cord after injection of 100,000 cells. An infiltrative lesion with high cellularity and atypical cells with multiple mitotic figures can be observed. Cellular clustering around dysmorphic vascular channels results in a papillary architecture with diffuse infiltration of gray and white matter and destruction of normal cord structures. H & E. Discussion The 9L and F98 rat glioma cell lines have been used to establish standard brain tumor models in rats that form infiltrative tumors with low immunogenic potential and

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Marion Rapp, Frank W. Floeth, Jörg Felsberg, Hans-Jakob Steiger, Michael Sabel, Karl-Josef Langen and Norbert Galldiks

, Jarosch M , Mühlensiepen H , Hamacher K , Bröer S , Jansen P , : Comparison of fluorotyrosines and methionine uptake in F98 rat gliomas . Nucl Med Biol 30 : 501 – 508 , 2003 35 Langen KJ , Tatsch K , Grosu AL , Jacobs AH , Weckesser M , Sabri O : Diagnostics of cerebral gliomas with radiolabeled amino acids . Dtsch Arztebl Int 105 : 55 – 61 , 2008 36 Louis DN , Ohgaki H , Wiestler OD , Cavenee WK , Burger PC , Jouvet A , : The 2007 WHO classification of tumours of the central nervous system . Acta

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William G. B. Singleton, Alison S. Bienemann, Max Woolley, David Johnson, Owen Lewis, Marcella J. Wyatt, Stephen J. P. Damment, Lisa J. Boulter, Clare L. Killick-Cole, Daniel J. Asby and Steven S. Gill

brains: implications for local drug delivery . J Neurosci Methods 154 : 225 – 232 , 2006 16472868 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2005.12.027 26 Singleton WG , Collins AM , Bienemann AS , Killick-Cole CL , Haynes HR , Asby DJ , : Convection enhanced delivery of panobinostat (LBH589)-loaded pluronic nano-micelles prolongs survival in the F98 rat glioma model . Int J Nanomedicine 12 : 1385 – 1399 , 2017 10.2147/IJN.S125300 28260886 27 Singleton WGB , Barua NU , Morgan J , Bienemann AS , Killick-Cole CL , Asby DJ , : Multi

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Nataliya Smith, Debra Saunders, Randy L. Jensen and Rheal A. Towner

/NCT01672463; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03587038 ). The F98 rat glioma model has a characteristic infiltrative pattern of growth and has qualities associated with human GBM gliomas and is classified as an anaplastic malignant tumor. In this study, after MRI detection of F98 gliomas, in the group of animals that received OKN-007 treatment, it was found that there was significantly increased survival, decreased tumor growth, and decreased tumor volumes. OKN-007 could be considered as a promising therapeutic adjuvant agent or alternative for the treatment of