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Tsuyoshi Sugiura, Yukitaka Nagamoto, Motoki Iwasaki, Masafumi Kashii, Takashi Kaito, Tsuyoshi Murase, Tetsuya Tomita, Hideki Yoshikawa, and Kazuomi Sugamoto

, 26 have long been used in the evaluation of cervical lesions caused by RA, 2D measurements are limited in their effectiveness for detecting subtle and complex morphological and kinematic changes in RA cervical lesions. Because of methodological difficulty, there have been few reports 7 , 20 , 21 on 3D morphology and kinematics of RA cervical lesions. In addition, there are no published quantitative evaluations of 3D morphological changes or explanations of how those changes affect joint kinematics. In previous studies, we documented morphological and kinematic

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Sebastian Siller, Caroline Zoellner, Manuel Fuetsch, Raimund Trabold, Joerg-Christian Tonn, and Stefan Zausinger

hydraulic counterbalance system allow for a 3D visualization in nearly any direction. However, the OM is expensive and, due to its heavy counterbalance system for stabilization of the head stage, is burdened by impaired maneuverability and limited space and movability in the operating room (OR). In addition, the superior 3D visualization is primarily restricted to the operating and assisting surgeons, who may experience intraoperative fatigue because visualization via the OM often forces the surgical team to work in nonergonomic positions. This face-to-machine interface

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Kamlesh B. Patel, Cihat Eldeniz, Gary B. Skolnick, Udayabhanu Jammalamadaka, Paul K. Commean, Manu S. Goyal, Matthew D. Smyth, and Hongyu An

to assess postoperative outcomes, to evaluate cranial defects, and to surgically plan secondary procedures. The CT scans are also used to assess intracranial abnormalities that may be coincidental or be associated with the condition (e.g., enlarged ventricles, excess fluid in subarachnoid spaces, arachnoid cyst, Chiari malformation/cerebellar herniation). State-of-the-art head CT scanning provides high-resolution images that allow for sophisticated 3D reconstructions, with a scan duration of approximately 5 seconds. Despite the benefits of CT, concerns have been

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Walid I. Essayed, Prashin Unadkat, Ahmed Hosny, Sarah Frisken, Marcio S. Rassi, Srinivasan Mukundan Jr., James C. Weaver, Ossama Al-Mefty, Alexandra J. Golby, and Ian F. Dunn

prostheses for repairing skull base defects using multimaterial 3D printing and neuronavigation, based on pre- and intraoperative scans. Methods Scanning and Approaches Three silicone-injected cadaveric specimens were used for this study. Preoperative thin-cut volumetric bone-window CT scans were performed, allowing the segmentation of extended models of the skull base (Ex-models) ( Fig. 1 ). We then performed a different endoscopic extended endonasal approach in each specimen: a transplanum transsphenoidal approach to the sella/suprasellar region; a transcribriform

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Adam L. Sandler, Oren M. Tepper, James T. Goodrich, Rani Nasser, Arundhati Biswas, and Rick Abbott

infants challenging, if not outright impossible. Small pieces of bone may break off from the inner half of the graft during splitting, resulting in an inability to harvest a large donor piece of bone. 5 , 10 Using a custom-made guide constructed with 3D printing, we describe a technique to salvage these pieces and use them to construct a single split-thickness graft without osseous gaps. Illustrative Case This 18-month-old girl was mauled by a dog when she was 11 months old, which resulted in a near complete amputation of the left ear, a comminuted, depressed

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Mario Cabraja, Michaela Endres, Aldemar A. Hegewald, Samuel Vetterlein, Claudius Thomé, Christian Woiciechowsky, and Christian Kaps

regeneration of articular cartilage and the NP of the disc. 6 , 8 Based on experiences in the field of cell-free cartilage repair, the use of a polymer-based material in combination with recruiting factors may be a strategy for AF regeneration. Although the AF is known for its poor self-healing capacity, its cells are able to differentiate in vitro in a 3D environment and to produce a matrix that is rich in collagens and proteoglycans. 4 , 10 Therefore, AF cells can be used in in vitro models to evaluate the influence of scaffold materials on the differentiation capacity

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Du Cheng, Melissa Yuan, Imali Perera, Ashley O’Connor, Alexander I. Evins, Thomas Imahiyerobo, Mark Souweidane, and Caitlin Hoffman

toward overcoming these educational barriers. In neurosurgery, cadaveric specimens have traditionally been used for higher-volume exposure and repetitive experience with surgical procedures and techniques. Over the past 2 decades, the development of 3D printed training models has increased exponentially in the medical field in general, but also specifically within neurosurgery. 2 , 3 , 12 , 14 , 17–19 Even within the subspecialty of pediatric neurosurgery, several physical simulators have been developed, for example, for pediatric lumbar spine pathologies, ventricular

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Jan-Helge Klingler, Ulrich Hubbe, Christoph Scholz, Florian Volz, Marc Hohenhaus, Ioannis Vasilikos, Waseem Masalha, Ralf Watzlawick, and Yashar Naseri

I ntraoperative 3D imaging and navigation is increasingly used in spine surgery, especially for navigated percutaneous placement of pedicle screws. 1 For referencing the intraoperatively obtained 3D image data set, the invasive mounting of a referencing tracker, such as on a spinous process via a separate skin incision with detachment of autochthonous muscles, was necessary until recently. A currently available noninvasive patient tracker, which is adhered as a mask on the skin ( Fig. 1 ), enables 3D navigation for minimally invasive surgery without the need

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Oktay Algin, Murat Ucar, Evrim Ozmen, Alp Ozgun Borcek, Pinar Ozisik, Gokhan Ocakoglu, and E. Turgut Tali

slice-thickness, 3D heavily T2W sequences (e.g., 3D constructive interference in steady state [3D-CISS]), and/or phase-contrast cine (PC) MRI. 6–8 However, each of these techniques has its own limitations and drawbacks. 2 , 5 With the development of MRI technology, the whole cranium, including CSF-containing spaces (especially the ventricular system), and CSF circulation are better evaluated with 3D isotropic submillimetric data obtained by 3-T MR units. 3 , 11 By using a relatively new technique called 3D sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts

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Keisuke Takai, Taichi Kin, Hiroshi Oyama, Akira Iijima, Masaaki Shojima, Hajime Nishido, and Nobuhito Saito

. Recently, 3D rotational angiography has been tested, and this method appears to be superior to conventional 2D DS angiography in its ability to generate stereoscopic images. 6 , 13 However, angiographic images lack information about the spinal cord or dura mater. Multidetectorrow spiral CT and contrast-enhanced MR angiography have been used as screening examinations before DS angiography, but these methods also provide little information about the spinal cord or dura mater. 9 , 10 , 12 , 15 Consequently, to enable visualization of whole spinal vascular malformations