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Trigeminal neuralgia secondary to osteoma and vascular compression: illustrative case

Chenglong Cao, Mingwu Li, Min Wu, and Xiaofeng Jiang

Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is an typical condition characterized by neuropathic facial pain. Its prevalence is between 4 to 13 cases per 100,000 persons, primarily affecting individuals above the age of 50 years. 1 , 2 Updated diagnostic categories have been proposed. 3 , 4 Classic TN requires confirmation of morphological changes in the trigeminal nerve root resulting from vascular compression. Secondary TN is due to an identifiable underlying neurological disease. The most common factors contributing to secondary TN are tumors (such as meningiomas

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Trigeminal neuralgia secondary to vascular compression and neurocysticercosis: illustrative case

Mao Vásquez, Luis J. Saavedra, Hector H. García, Evelyn Vela, Jorge E. Medina, Miguel Lozano, Carlos Hoyos, and William W. Lines-Aguilar

tumors (meningiomas, epidermoid cysts, acoustic neuromas, etc.) and, less frequently, aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations, 5 and rarer still, neurocysticercosis (NCC). In secondary TN, pathophysiological changes similar to those in primary TN occur, although the structural lesion depends on the etiology; for example, in multiple sclerosis, it is due to demyelination plaques. 7 The standard treatment for TN is microsurgical decompression of the trigeminal nerve. We present a case in which neighboring NCC cysts, arachnoiditis, and vascular compression occurred in

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Management of rare atlantoaxial synovial cyst case with extension to the cerebellopontine angle: illustrative case

Shawn D’Souza, Vikram Seshadri, Harsh P Shah, Jan T Hachmann, and R. Scott Graham

far lat approach (transcondylar) preferred for anterior lesions; fusion only necessary if concerned for neck instability CR/W/NR Harries et al., 2010 9 1/75/F Paresthesias, upper extremity paresis, gait abnormalities, hyperreflexia −/−/− Mass at C1–2 causing compression of cervico-medullary junction Far lat approach Difficult to determine nature of mass due to patient contraindication for MRI; resulted in preliminary diagnosis of meningioma, leading authors to choose far lat approach for optimal access PR/SI/NR Mendes-Arajuo et al., 2010 10

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“Winged” Eagle’s syndrome: neurophysiological findings in a rare cause of spinal accessory nerve palsy. Illustrative cases

Eric C Mitchell, Kitty Y Wu, Fawaz Siddiqi, John Yoo, Pavlo Ohorodnyk, Douglas Ross, and Thomas A Miller

the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles, indicating a proximal compression point. Advanced imaging, such as CT with three-dimensional reconstruction and MRI, was helpful in excluding other causes of extrinsic SAN compression, such as a glomus tumor or meningioma. In these cases of SAN compression from an angulated or calcified styloid process, surgical decompression and styloidectomy led to good results with the recovery of trapezius function despite the prolonged degree of muscle atrophy. It is unclear if the patients will regain significant middle and