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  • Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics x
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Hillary A. Shurtleff, Dwight Barry, Timothy Firman, Molly H. Warner, Rafael L. Aguilar-Estrada, Russell P. Saneto, John D. Kuratani, Richard G. Ellenbogen, Edward J. Novotny and Jeffrey G. Ojemann

to resection; 30 4) wide ranges of presurgical seizure duration; 28 and 5) variable pathologies. 2 , 28 Because many pediatric studies have focused on different age ranges, some studies have attempted to narrow the developmental scope, but their methods have still varied from each other, making them difficult to compare. Age range samples include patients less than 6 or 7 years at surgery, 19 , 28 3 to 7 years, 6 8 to 159 months, 34 less than 3 years, 20 , 26 or 3 to 36 months. 3 A number of studies 7 , 21 , 22 , 29 , 32 , 37 have focused on temporal

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Rachel Mandela, Maggie Bellew, Paul Chumas and Hannah Nash

seen in the general population. 13 , 14 , 24 The literature documents differences between children with and without NSC (regardless of surgery) that are subtle but persistent and often do not show up until much later as cognitive demands increase. 3 , 13 , 14 Research has demonstrated a higher rate of difficulties in speech and language, visuospatial skills, memory, and attention as well as a downward shift in distribution of IQ score compared to norms. 14 Surgery is often offered in NSC for cosmetic reasons, though there is increasing evidence to suggest an impact

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Rafael De la Garza Ramos, C. Rory Goodwin, Nancy Abu-Bonsrah, Amit Jain, Emily K. Miller, Nicole Huang, Khaled M. Kebaish, Paul D. Sponseller and Daniel M. Sciubba

A dolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most common form of structural coronal spine deformity in the younger population, presenting between the ages of 10 years and skeletal maturity, typically 18 years old. 14 Corrective surgery is usually reserved for patients with curves of at least 50°, rapidly progressive curves in skeletally immature patients, progressive double curves, curves producing significant trunk imbalance, curves not controlled by bracing, and, on some occasions, curves causing psychological distress due to cosmetic appearance. 23

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Joshua D. Burks, Andrew K. Conner, Robert G. Briggs, Chad A. Glenn, Phillip A. Bonney, Ahmed A. Cheema, Sixia Chen, Naina L. Gross and Timothy B. Mapstone

surgery is common in shunt-treated pediatric patients. For instance, myelomeningocele patients often require operations to augment bowel and/or bladder function. 16 At our institution, experience led us to suspect that VP shunt malfunction occurs more frequently when the shunt is placed after an abdominal procedure. There is little information in the literature regarding this subject, and it is unclear whether these patients are actually at additional risk. Considering the relationship between abdominal surgery and shunt failure may serve to optimize surgical decision

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Mohsin Ali, Michael Bennardo, Saleh A. Almenawer, Nirmeen Zagzoog, Alston A. Smith, Dyda Dao, BHSc, Olufemi Ajani, Forough Farrokhyar and Sheila K. Singh

will not require surgery. 1 Identifying predictors for surgery, therefore, can inform decision-making about clinical management. There is a paucity of literature addressing the predictors of surgery among these patients, with only 1 recent study suggesting that larger cyst size at diagnosis and a younger age at presentation are statistically significant predictors. 1 In addition, for the minority of children and adolescents with an intracranial arachnoid cyst who undergo surgery, the comparative effectiveness of various surgical approaches for treating pediatric

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Ji Hoon Phi, Byung-Kyu Cho, Kyu-Chang Wang, Ji Yeoun Lee, Yong Seung Hwang, Ki Joong Kim, Jong-Hee Chae, In-One Kim, Sung-Hye Park and Seung-Ki Kim

I ntractable epilepsy in children is a serious condition that handicaps the afflicted individual in every aspect of life. 1 The physical, psychological, and social life of the patients deteriorate rapidly with continuing seizures. Epilepsy surgery can be a remedy for intractable epilepsy in carefully selected patients. 31 One characteristic of pediatric epilepsy is that developmental lesions predominate as the cause of the disease. Focal cortical dysplasia is the most common developmental lesion responsible for intractable epilepsy in children. 26

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Okezie Obasi Kanu, Efosa Ukponmwan, Olufemi Bankole, John Olutola Olatosi and Sarajudeen Oladele Arigbabu

with Pott puffy tumor. 13 , 36 , 52 , 54 The bone in the region overlying the abscess almost always shows evidence of osteomyelitis. 26 Less common causes include orbital suppurations, 47 congenital dermal sinus, 16 and dental infection, 20 which was the cause of the IEA in our case. The oral/dental procedures purported to have caused an intracranial abscess include dentoalveolar surgery, operative dentistry, periodontal therapy, local dental anesthetic injection, and dental prophylaxis. 45 These commonly result in cerebral abscess. Epidural abscess can

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Nalin Gupta, Jody A. Farrell, Larry Rand, Charles B. Cauldwell and Diana Farmer

S uccessful fetal surgery requires the active participation and interaction of several clinical teams ( Table 1 ). Each group has a specific role with overlap often required at different points of the evaluation and treatment plan. Similar to other multidisciplinary groups, a weekly case discussion allows for a review of prospective patients and their preoperative considerations, as well as ongoing follow-up of postoperative patients. Extensive counseling with the patient and family is critical before the patient can be expected to reach a carefully

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Chun-de Li, Shi-qi Luo, Jian Gong, Zhen-yu Ma, Ge Jia, Yu-qi Zhang and Jie-fei Li

CPP caused by HH who received surgical treatment and were followed up for 9–11 years. Case Reports Case 1 History and Examination This otherwise healthy girl began experiencing leucorrhea at 7 months of age, breast growth at 1 year, and menses at 2 years. Blood endocrine hormone examination immediately before surgery revealed that serum LH, FSH, and E 2 concentrations were 4.5 mIU/ml, 5.9 mIU/ml, and 63.9 pg/ml, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a round lesion 10 mm in diameter, with an isointense mass within the hypothalamus ( Fig. 1A

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Gregory W. Albert, George M. Ibrahim, Hiroshi Otsubo, Ayako Ochi, Cristina Y. Go, O. Carter Snead III, James M. Drake and James T. Rutka

R esection of epileptogenic foci has become a widely accepted therapy for the treatment of medically refractory epilepsy in children. A recent review from the University of California, Los Angeles, found a 58% increase in the number of resections performed for epilepsy comparing the decade prior to 1997 to the decade after. 7 Contrary to the experience in adult epilepsy surgery, many resections in children are extratemporal, accounting for over 50% of cases. 7 , 12 This difference likely reflects the different pathologies encountered in children