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Shanmukha Srinivas, Arvin R. Wali and Martin H. Pham

, locomotion was evaluated with the rotarod, grid walk, open field, and pellet-reaching tasks; strength was evaluated with the inclined plane test; and sensory function was evaluated with the hind paw withdrawal test. A plethora of behavioral studies demonstrated positive effects of riluzole on motor function including locomotion, 21 , 27 , 34 , 38 , 48 , 58 , 57 strength, 1 , 47 , 48 and stance and stride length. 47 , 49 With regard to sensory function, behavioral studies have suggested that riluzole decreases nociception 24 and spastic reflexes, 30 which is both

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Frank J. Tomecek, C. Scott Anthony, Chris Boxell and Jennifer Warren

The authors provide an indepth analysis of discography, a provocative diagnostic tool to determine the origin of low-back pain. Injecting the intervertebral disc with radiopaque dye provides physicians with several useful pieces of information. First, the modality provides radiographic evaluation of the integrity of the nucleus pulposus and anular rings to determine tears or other lesions that could be creating low-back pain. Second, and very important, is its measure of disc nociception. A normal disc should not cause pain when injected; however, a disc that is physiologically compromised can mimic the pain previously experienced by a patient. The authors review the indications, technique, and interpretation of discography to allow a better understanding of when to use this diagnostic test and what to do with the results.

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Neurosurgical Focus FOC 1092-0684 American Association of Neurological Surgeons 2011.2.FOC-SPINEPERIPHSECTIONABSTRACTS Oral Presentations 118. Evidence of Descending Supraspinal Control of Nociception and Pain Behavior in Experimental Disc-Herniation Radiculopathy Mohammed F. Shamji , MD, PhD (University of Ottawa Hospital-Civic Campus); Priscilla Hwang , Kyle D Allen , Mosfata Gabr , J. Chen , Liufang Jing , William J. Richardson , MD , and Lori A. Setton , PhD 3 2011 30 3

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Noriyoshi Takebe, Koichi Iwasaki, Hirokuni Hashikata and Hiroki Toda

weakness, but he was alert and oriented. He had flaccid paraparesis. Power was reduced in both lower extremities. His Medical Research Council grades were 3/5 for the left iliopsoas and quadriceps muscles, 4/5 for the right iliopsoas and quadriceps muscles, and 3/5 for the bilateral hamstrings, anterior tibialis, extensor hallucis longus, and gastrocnemius muscles. Knee-jerk and ankle-jerk reflexes were absent on both sides. Anal tone was slightly lax. There was significant hypesthesia to thermal and painful nociception and light touch sensation below the level of the

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Jennifer F. Russo and Sameer A. Sheth

discussed the findings of neuroimaging studies devoted to elucidating chronic pain states published over the past decade. 4 He found that not only did each chronic pain syndrome evoke a unique pattern of activity but also that chronic pain generally activates brain regions that are more involved with emotional and motivational states than with acute nociception, such as the dACC. The altered activity in chronic pain patients described above is complemented by changes in gray and white matter. Decreased gray matter density in areas involved in nociception has been