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Tamara Denning, Yoky Matsuoka and Tadayoshi Kohno

. Neuroethics, on the other hand, strives to ensure that the therapies produced by neural engineering follow certain ethical guidelines and respect the sanctity of the individual. 11 To date, neither of these approaches considers how a neural device might be appropriated to perform unintended actions that are unethical or unsafe. In this paper we define “neurosecurity” and discuss related challenges that will arise as neural engineering technologies continue to evolve. In addition, we discuss why neurosecurity must be a critical consideration in the design of future neural

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Alberto A. Uribe, Mirza N. Baig, Erika G. Puente, Adolfo Viloria, Ehud Mendel and Sergio D. Bergese

attributable to the difficulty of positioning, monitoring, and accessing the patient's head before and during surgical procedures. To address these challenging factors and allow OR personnel to have complete control over head position and monitoring, classic devices have been modified and designed to prevent mechanical ocular compression during surgical procedures in which the patient is placed prone. Table 1 lists the advantages and disadvantages of each of the devices discussed below. TABLE 1: Devices used for surgery performed in patients in the prone position

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Nai-Feng Tian, Ai-Min Wu, Li-Jun Wu, Xin-Lei Wu, Yao-Sen Wu, Xiao-Lei Zhang, Hua-Zi Xu and Yong-Long Chi

O ver the past several years, ISP devices have gained popularity, although they are still in the early stage of clinical use. 3 , 4 , 6 , 8 , 14 , 18 , 19 , 21 They provide an alternative to arthrodesis for patients with degenerative lumbar disease. Several ISP devices are currently available, and they can be categorized as static or dynamic. 3 Biomechanical studies have shown that ISP implants strongly stabilize and reduce intradiscal pressure during extension but that they have little effect during flexion, lateral bending, and axial rotation. 8 , 19

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Samon Tavakoli, Geoffrey Peitz, William Ares, Shaheryar Hafeez and Ramesh Grandhi

be placed in the subdural space, parenchyma, or ventricle for ICP monitoring. The reliability and efficacy of such devices were studied during the 1990s and found to be reasonably accurate compared with EVDs. 23 , 24 , 26 Although EVDs remain the gold standard in ICP monitoring due to their ability to be zeroed in vivo as well as their ability to drain CSF, intraparenchymal and subdural monitors are preferred in some cases or by some providers because of the latter’s comparative ease of placement and perceived lower risk of complications. Herein, the types and

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Edison P. Valle-Giler, Elias Atallah, Stavropoula Tjoumakaris, Robert H. Rosenwasser and Pascal Jabbour

T he Pipeline embolization device (PED) has changed the paradigm of aneurysm treatment since it was approved in 2011. 5 , 13 , 18 The popularity of the PED is based on its efficacy in treating aneurysms when compared with conventional coiling (> 80% vs 66% aneurysm obliteration rate, respectively, with minimal—if any—aneurysm recurrence). 2 , 3 , 5 , 6 , 10 , 13 , 15 Usually the PED deployment is anterograde, with the delivery microcatheter entering the inflow of the aneurysm. Sometimes the deployment can be difficult, mainly because of tortuous anatomy

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David Dornbos III, Constantine L. Karras, Nicole Wenger, Blake Priddy, Patrick Youssef, Shahid M. Nimjee and Ciarán J. Powers

T he treatment of intracranial aneurysms has increasingly shifted away from open microsurgery as endovascular techniques and technologies have continued to improve. The introduction of flow diversion marked another major paradigm shift in the neurosurgical treatment of intracranial aneurysms. Initially approved for the treatment of large, broad-necked aneurysms of the petrous to supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA), 2 , 21 utilization of the Pipeline embolization device (PED, Covidien/ev3) has been described in numerous other locations and aneurysm

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Victor Garcia-Navarro, Guido Lancman, Amancio Guerrero-Maldonado, Vijay K. Anand and Theodore H. Schwartz

of firm tumors in a narrow working space without heating the surrounding tissue. Methods Equipment and Principles We used such a side-cutting aspiration system called the NICO Myriad (NICO Myriad System, NICO Corp.). The device is available in 3 lengths (10, 13, and 25 cm) and 2 cannula diameters (1.9 and 2.5 mm). The handpiece is shown in Fig. 1 . The mechanism at the tip is based on a device that acts as an aspirator, tissue rake, and scissors. It is a disposable, nonheat-generating tissue removal system. It has an outer stationary cannula and a blunt

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Christian Bowers, Amin Amini, Andrew T. Dailey and Meic H. Schmidt

S pinal fusion has been the standard of treatment for spinal instabilities due to degenerative changes in the disc with subsequent spondylolisthesis, ankylosis, and central canal and neuroforaminal stenosis. Although fusion devices have been shown to offer improved outcomes, some long-term clinical data fail to show a correlation between the high rate of fusion and pain improvement. 9 , 11 Biomechanical alteration in the load-transferring and stress-shielding effect, causing higher morbidity at the adjacent levels, instrumentation-related osteopenia, and a

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Clemens M. Schirmer, Daniel A. Hoit and Adel M. Malek

) 2 (33) <0.82  previous radiation 2 (5) 1 (5) 1 (8) 0 <0.74  hx of myocardial ischemia 25 (63) 11 (50) 9 (75) 5 (83) <0.18 * Values represent numbers of patients (%) unless otherwise specified. CEA = carotid endarterectomy; gen = generation; hx = history; SD = standard deviation. † Guidant Accunet in 3 procedures and SpiderFX in 3 procedures. The FilterWire EX Distal Protection Device The fixed-basket FilterWire EX DPD consists of a distal polyurethane filter with pores sized between 80 and 100 μm that is mounted

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Ammar H. Hawasli, Jawad M. Khalifeh, Ajay Chatrath, Chester K. Yarbrough and Wilson Z. Ray

open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (OP-TLIF) with regards to superior long-term pain scores, reduced blood loss, reduced hospital length of stay, and reduced complication rates. 7 MIS-TLIF has similar fusion rates to OP-TLIF but a higher amount of radiation exposure than OP-TLIF. 7 MIS-TLIF also has a lower calculated 2-year cost and accelerated return to work when compared with OP-TLIF. 14 , 15 MIS-TLIF technology has evolved to include expandable interbody devices. 3 , 8 , 11 Despite their recent inclusion in the armamentarium available to a minimally