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Jennifer A. Moliterno, Jared Knopman, Karishma Parikh, Jessica N. Cohan, Q. Daisy Huang, Grant D. Aaker, Anastasia D. Grivoyannis, Ashwin R. Patel, Roger Härtl and John A. Boockvar

our experience to provide further insight into the rate of LDH recurrence following tLMD. Moreover, we sought to identify specific risk factors associated with recurrence and to determine whether such factors differ from those of open discectomy. 24 , 25 Methods Patient Population A consecutive cohort of 217 patients with single-level LDH who underwent tLMD that entailed using the tubular retractor system (METRx System, Medtronic Sofamor Danek, or Insight System, Synthes) between 2004 and 2008 were initially included in this retrospective study. Patients

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Nancy Abu-Bonsrah, C. Rory Goodwin, Gezzer Ortega, Fizan Abdullah, Edward Cornwell, Rafael De la Garza-Ramos, Mari L. Groves, Michael Ain, Paul D. Sponseller and Daniel M. Sciubba

risk factors associated with adverse outcomes is needed to more effectively stratify patient populations, identify high-risk groups, and ultimately decrease operative risk. Multiple studies have examined each of these factors in subsets of pediatric patients undergoing spinal fusion. The majority of analyses focus on either one particular population of patients 1 , 2 , 7 , 16 , 17 , 23–25 or a single complication, 5 , 10 , 13–15 while others have been limited to single centers 5 , 7 , 9 , 10 or to the adult population. 7 , 18 , 20 , 21 Few studies have provided a

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Hieronymus D. Boogaarts, Jasper H. van Lieshout, Martinus J. van Amerongen, Joost de Vries, André L. M. Verbeek, J. André Grotenhuis, Gert P. Westert and Ronald H. M. A. Bartels

rupture as is feasible to reduce the rate of rebleeding. 8 Currently, ultra-early treatment, considered to be within 24 hours, is advised for patients in good clinical condition. 34 Although nonmodifiable causes, such as transfer from other hospitals and late diagnosis, might delay treatment, ultra-early treatment can also be difficult due to internal logistics issues like limited 24/7 surgical coverage and access to operating theaters and anesthetic and nursing staff. 34 Recognizing risk factors for aneurysmal rebleeding is particularly relevant and might help to

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Keaton Piper, Hanna Algattas, Ian A. DeAndrea-Lazarus, Kristopher T. Kimmell, Yan Michael Li, Kevin A. Walter, Howard J. Silberstein and G. Edward Vates

pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep venous thromboembolism (DVT). Although effective VTE chemoprophylaxis exists, the decision to medicate is complicated by the associated increased risk of hemorrhage. 5 To create an evidence-based approach to VTE prophylaxis, the risk factors that predispose patients to the development of VTE need to be explored further for each type of surgery. When planning neurosurgical procedures, knowing a patient's VTE risk is of particular importance, because chemoprophylaxis has been associated with intracranial hemorrhage and epidural hematoma

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Daniel Delev, Anna Pavlova, Alexander Grote, Azize Boström, Anke Höllig, Johannes Schramm, Rolf Fimmers, Johannes Oldenburg and Matthias Simon

). Before any blood donation, all candidate donors underwent a thorough clinical examination and were asked to fill out an extensive questionnaire about their own and family medical histories. In case of any medical conditions or signs and symptoms pointing to any significant disease (including recurrent headaches or epilepsy), cardiovascular risk factors, or hereditary diseases in either the individual or her or his family, the candidate donor was excluded from blood donation. The study was approved by the ethics committee of the University of Bonn Medical Center

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Satoshi Nori, Akio Iwanami, Akimasa Yasuda, Narihito Nagoshi, Nobuyuki Fujita, Tomohiro Hikata, Mitsuru Yagi, Takashi Tsuji, Kota Watanabe, Suketaka Momoshima, Morio Matsumoto, Masaya Nakamura and Ken Ishii

sacrificed for tumor resection. These factors confound any analysis of the pure effect of tumors inside the spinal cord because they can also affect the risk of cervical spine misalignment after surgery. Since previous studies aimed at identifying risk factors for the development of misalignment of the spine have included tumors located in different spinal regions and patients of various age groups and with various pathologies, their validity and conclusions remain under debate. The purpose of the present study was to identify clinical predictors for the development of

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Penny K. Sneed, Joe Mendez, Johanna G. M. Vemer-van den Hoek, Zachary A. Seymour, Lijun Ma, Annette M. Molinaro, Shannon E. Fogh, Jean L. Nakamura and Michael W. McDermott

findings at resection or serial imaging showing shrinkage or stability of the lesion without further treatment, whereas active tumor may be demonstrated by more solid-appearing, sustained growth over multiple follow-up scans. In some cases the diagnosis remains indeterminate, particularly without resection or adequate further imaging. With the above principles in mind, the purpose of our study was to perform a rigorous, in-depth analysis of the incidence, time course, and risk factors for both overall ARE and symptomatic ARE after SRS for brain metastases. We evaluated

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Dushyanth Srinivasan, Samuel W. Terman, Mai Himedan, Domenico Dugo, Frank La Marca and Paul Park

B acterial spinal infection can involve the intervertebral disc, bone, and/or epidural space. Incidence of spinal epidural abscess (SEA) has been reported to range from 0.2 to 1.2 cases per 10,000 hospital admissions. 13 The incidence of vertebral osteomyelitis has been estimated to be 2.2 per 100,000 persons. 3 Various risk factors for spinal infection have been reported, including intravenous drug abuse, diabetes, chronic alcohol abuse, immunosuppression, and trauma. 11 , 13 Hematogenous dissemination is typically the origin of spinal infection, and

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Catherine Miller and Ramachandra P. Tummala

describes the incidence of EVD-associated hemorrhage ranging broadly from 0% to 42%. 1 , 6–11 , 13–15 , 17–26 , 28–31 , 33 , 34 The majority of these hemorrhages appear to be small and not clinically significant. While the risks associated with EVD placement have been studied extensively, there is little information regarding risks with EVD removal ( Table 1 ). The incidence of hemorrhage associated with removal of an EVD has been documented in a few articles but has not been studied rigorously. 8 , 18 , 28 The risk factors for EVD removal seem similar intuitively to

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Shih-Shan Lang, Joel A. Bauman, Michael W. Aversano, Matthew R. Sanborn, Arastoo Vossough, Gregory G. Heuer and Phillip B. Storm

pseudomeningocele formation, intraventricular hemorrhage, epidural and subdural hematomas, and cranial nerve palsies. 1 , 5 , 21 , 22 Despite the proximity to the hypothalamus and pituitary stalk, injury to the hypothalamic-pituitary axis with associated endocrinological and electrolyte abnormalities following ETV has been rarely reported in the literature. 3 , 10 , 12 , 16 , 17 , 20 , 24 Diabetes insipidus and hypernatremia have been more commonly reported. Here we report 5 cases of hyponatremia following ETV and an analysis of potential associated risk factors as determined