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John M. Zanella, Nahid Waleh, Juan Orduña, Jose Montenegro, Jaime Paulin, William F. McKay and Jared Wilsey

bone morphogenetic protein family members as neurotrophic factors for cultured sensory neurons . Neuroscience 92 : 227 – 235 , 1999 7 Gregory NS , Harris AL , Robinson CR , Dougherty PM , Fuchs PN , Sluka KA : An overview of animal models of pain: disease models and outcome measures . J Pain 14 : 1255 – 1269 , 2013 8 Hargreaves K , Dubner R , Brown F , Flores C , Joris J : A new and sensitive method for measuring thermal nociception in cutaneous hyperalgesia . Pain 32 : 77 – 88 , 1988 9 Harrington JF , Messier

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Ben Ren, Bengt Linderoth and Björn A. Meyerson

lack of accord between our results and those of Saadé and coworkers in this respect; however, it may be that they applied SCS with higher intensity than we did in the present study in which the intensity was set in relation to the motor threshold. Recently, Rees and Roberts 20 have summarized studies concerned with the possible function of the anterior pretectal nucleus in the modulation of nociception. This nucleus obviously receives excitatory input from low-threshold afferents via the dorsal columns, and the authors hypothesized that this structure may take

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Ellen M. Soffin, Douglas S. Wetmore, James D. Beckman, Evan D. Sheha, Avani S. Vaishnav, Todd J. Albert, Catherine H. Gang and Sheeraz A. Qureshi

decompression is feasible. Within a comprehensive ERAS pathway emphasizing MMA, OFA did not adversely affect surgical duration, postoperative (rebound) pain, recovery, or LOS. On the contrary, our results suggest the possibility that OFA may be associated with more rapid time to meeting discharge criteria. As a novel paradigm, further studies are required to evaluate OFA and its applicability to other spine surgeries. Additional questions to be answered include how best to monitor intraoperative nociception (particularly for surgeries with higher expected pain burden); which

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Abigail Belasen, Khizer Rizvi, Lucy E. Gee, Philip Yeung, Julia Prusik, Adolfo Ramirez-Zamora, Era Hanspal, Priscilla Paiva, Jennifer Durphy, Charles E. Argoff and Julie G. Pilitsis

, Anderson AJ , Robbins MT , Ness TJ , Goodin BR : Sex differences in experimental measures of pain sensitivity and endogenous pain inhibition . J Pain Res 8 : 311 – 320 , 2015 26170713 11 Chudler EH , Dong WK : The role of the basal ganglia in nociception and pain . Pain 60 : 3 – 38 , 1995 7715939 10.1016/0304-3959(94)00172-B 12 Ciampi de Andrade D , Lefaucheur JP , Galhardoni R , Ferreira KS , Brandão Paiva AR , Bor-Seng-Shu E , : Subthalamic deep brain stimulation modulates small fiber-dependent sensory thresholds in

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Toshihiro Fujiwara, Ken Matsuda, Tateki Kubo, Koichi Tomita, Ryo Hattori, Takeshi Masuoka, Kenji Yano and Ko Hosokawa

Surg Oncol 31 : 277 – 281 , 2005 6 Gordon T , Fu SY : Long-term response to nerve injury . Adv Neurol 72 : 185 – 199 , 1997 7 Gu YD , Wu MM , Zhen YL , Zhao JA , Zhang GM , Chen DS , : Phrenic nerve transfer for brachial plexus motor neurotization . Microsurgery 10 : 287 – 289 , 1989 8 Hargreaves K , Dubner R , Brown F , Flores C , Joris J : A new and sensitive method for measuring thermal nociception in cutaneous hyperalgesia . Pain 32 : 77 – 88 , 1988 9 Isaacs J , Allen D , Chen LE , Nunley J

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Antos Shakhbazau, Chandan Mohanty, Ranjan Kumar and Rajiv Midha

, Pool CW , Carlstedt TP , : Neuroregenerative effects of lentiviral vector-mediated GDNF expression in reimplanted ventral roots . Mol Cell Neurosci 39 : 105 – 117 , 2008 12 Franck MC , Stenqvist A , Li L , Hao J , Usoskin D , Xu X , : Essential role of Ret for defining non-peptidergic nociceptor phenotypes and functions in the adult mouse . Eur J Neurosci 33 : 1385 – 1400 , 2011 13 Hargreaves K , Dubner R , Brown F , Flores C , Joris J : A new and sensitive method for measuring thermal nociception in cutaneous

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Michael B. Jirjis, Chris Valdez, Aditya Vedantam, Brian D. Schmit and Shekar N. Kurpad

A , Yajima H , Takagi H : Calcitonin gene-related peptide promotes mechanical nociception by potentiating release of substance P from the spinal dorsal horn in rats . Brain Res 403 : 350 – 354 , 1987 10.1016/0006-8993(87)90074-6 2435372 29 Ondarza AB , Ye Z , Hulsebosch CE : Direct evidence of primary afferent sprouting in distant segments following spinal cord injury in the rat: colocalization of GAP-43 and CGRP . Exp Neurol 184 : 373 – 380 , 2003 14637107 10.1016/j.expneurol.2003.07.002 30 Pierpaoli C , Barnett A , Pajevic S

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Yasuhiro Tominaga, Travis G. Maak, Paul C. Ivancic, Manohar M. Panjabi and Bryan W. Cunningham

of spinal cord dorsal horn lamina involved in nociception . Spine 25 : 537 – 542 , 2000 27 Nuckley DJ , Konodi MA , Raynak GC , Ching RP , Mirza SK : Neural space integrity of the lower cervical spine: effect of normal range of motion . Spine 27 : 587 – 595 , 2002 28 Nuckley DJ , Van Nausdle JA , Raynak GC , Eck MP , Perry CE , Harrington RM , : Examining the relationship between whiplash kinematics and a direct neurologic injury mechanism . Int J Vehicle Design 32 : 68 – 83 , 2003 29 Ortengren T , Hansson HA

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Hideki Oshima, Yoichi Katayama, Takashi Morishita, Koichiro Sumi, Toshiharu Otaka, Kazutaka Kobayashi, Yutaka Suzuki, Chikashi Fukaya and Takamitsu Yamamoto

, Anderson VC , Favre J , Hammerstad JP : Comparison of pallidal and subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation for advanced Parkinson's disease: results of a randomized, blinded pilot study . Neurosurgery 45 : 1375 – 1384 , 1999 7 Canavero S : Central pain and Parkinson disease . Arch Neurol 66 : 282 – 283 , 2009 8 Chudler EH , Dong WK : The role of the basal ganglia in nociception and pain . Pain 60 : 3 – 38 , 1995 9 Deep-Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease Study Group : Deep-brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus or the

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Jayme Augusto Bertelli, Marcos Flavio Ghizoni and Adalberto Michels

Grade 4, according to the Ashworth scale ( Fig. 1 ). An overactive stretch reflex with clonus was present in the digital and wrist flexors. Passive wrist extension was impossible and, when tried, was very painful (8 on a scale of 1–10). Slight digital athetosis was noted. Fig. 1. Case 1. Photograph showing preoperative spasticity in the patient's hand. Hand sensibility was preserved, with two-point discrimination of 4 mm on her thumb, index, and little finger. Nociception was also preserved according to assessment with the pinprick test. When asked to compare her