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Katie Pricola Fehnel, Micah Duggins-Warf, David Zurakowski, Maxwell McKee-Proctor, Rajarshi Majumder, Michael Raber, Xuezhe Han and Edward R. Smith

demographics are presented in Supplementary Table 1 ; focused demographics of control patients, patients with JPA, and patients with medulloblastoma are presented in Table 1 . Of the patients with JPAs, 15 were newly diagnosed tumors with specimen collection at the time of initial surgery and 6 patients had recurrent tumors with specimen collection at the time of reoperation. Genetic screening for BRAF mutations revealed that 5 patients had 3' BRAF duplication, 1 patient had a V600E mutation, and 2 patients had NF1 mutations. No patients were currently receiving

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Cheng-Bei Li, Lai-Rong Song, Da Li, Jian-Cong Weng, Li-Wei Zhang, Jun-Ting Zhang and Zhen Wu

recent study by Mastorakos et al., 16 BRAF mutation was verified as an independent beneficial factor predicting better outcomes in patients with brain metastatic melanoma, and BRAF inhibitors (dabrafenib or vemurafenib) demonstrated promising results. To date, few PIMM patients have undergone immunotherapy or targeted therapy, but individualized treatment based on the genetic profile of the patient’s lesion and the therapeutic efficacy of the pertinent therapy should be a promising option. Limitations There was no diffuse-type PIMM in our institutional series based on

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Gavin P. Dunn, Ovidiu C. Andronesi and Daniel P. Cahill

inhibiting the mutant enzyme would make these tumors behave like their more aggressive WT counterparts. The differences in survival most likely stem from the fact that IDH1- mutant and -WT tumors arise from distinct lineages and ontogenies and thus represent entirely different neoplastic disease processes. Because gliomas acquire the IDH1 mutation very early in their development, akin to BRAF mutations in dysplastic nevi and melanoma, we envisage that it similarly represents a targetable dependency. From a surgical standpoint, it will be important to determine

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Michael Karsy, Jian Guan, Walavan Sivakumar, Jayson A. Neil, Meic H. Schmidt and Mark A. Mahan

novel factor in human breast cancer cells with metastatic potential . Cancer Res 59 : 4675 – 4680 , 1999 87 Ren X , Wang J , Hu M , Jiang H , Yang J , Jiang Z : Clinical, radiological, and pathological features of 26 intracranial and intraspinal malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors . J Neurosurg 119 : 695 – 708 , 2013 88 Robert C , Long GV , Brady B , Dutriaux C , Maio M , Mortier L , : Nivolumab in previously untreated melanoma without BRAF mutation . N Engl J Med 372 : 320 – 330 , 2015 89 Robertson KA

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Darryl Lau, Stephen T. Magill and Manish K. Aghi

C , Hu X , Rosenblum MK , Koutcher JA , Holland EC : Dose-dependent effects of platelet-derived growth factor-B on glial tumorigenesis . Cancer Res 64 : 4783 – 4789 , 2004 95 Smalley KS , Xiao M , Villanueva J , Nguyen TK , Flaherty KT , Letrero R , : CRAF inhibition induces apoptosis in melanoma cells with non-V600E BRAF mutations . Oncogene 28 : 85 – 94 , 2009 96 Stommel JM , Kimmelman AC , Ying H , Nabioullin R , Ponugoti AH , Wiedemeyer R , : Coactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases affects the