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Daniel V. Loesch, Steven Gilman, Jerel Del Dotto and Mark L. Rosenblum

– 749 , 1978 Bicknell JM, Carlow TJ, Kornfeld M, et al: Familial cavernous angiomas. Arch Neurol 35: 746–749, 1978 4. Butters N , Granholm E : The continuity hypothesis: some conclusions and their implications for the etiology and neuropathology of alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome , in Parsons OA , Butters N , Nathan PE (eds): Neuropsychology of Alcoholism: Implications for Diagnosis and Treatment. New York : Guilford Press , 1987 , pp 176 – 206 Butters N, Granholm E: The continuity hypothesis: some

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Eugene S. Flamm, Harry B. Demopoulos, Myron L. Seligman, John J. Tomasula, Vincent DeCrescito and Joseph Ransohoff

–106, 1973 4. Cederbaum AI , Lieber CS , Rubin E : The effect of acetaldehyde on mitochondrial function. Arch Biochem Biophys 161 : 26 – 39 , 1974 Cederbaum AI, Lieber CS, Rubin E: The effect of acetaldehyde on mitochondrial function. Arch Biochem Biophys 161: 26–39, 1974 5. Cowan DH : The platelet defect in alcoholism. Ann NY Acad Sci 252 : 328 – 341 , 1975 Cowan DH: The platelet defect in alcoholism. Ann NY Acad Sci 252: 328–341, 1975 6. DeCrescito V , Demopoulos

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Mitsunori Matsumae, Ron Kikinis, István A. Mórocz, Antonio V. Lorenzo, Tamás Sándor, Marilyn S. Albert, Peter McL. Black and Ferenc A. Jolesz

have been provided previously. 1 The other 26 participants were selected from our own database, and although they did not undergo laboratory or neuropsychological testing as did those from the normative aging study, they were deemed to be free of any severe cardiovascular, neurological, or psychiatric disorder, including drug abuse and alcoholism. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Procedures Magnetic resonance images of the brain were obtained on a 1.5-tesla imaging system (Signa; General Electric Corp., Milwaukee, WI) using double-echo (echo times 30 and 80 msec

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Brian J. Zink, Michael A. Sheinberg, Xu Wang, Michelle Mertz, Susan A. Stern and A. Lorris Betz

Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism , 1993 , pp 355 – 371 Crews FT, Chandler LJ: Excitotoxicity and the neuropathology of ethanol, in Hunt WA, Nixon SJ (eds): Alcohol-Induced Brain Damage. Research Monograph No. 22. NIH Publication No. 93–3549. Washington, DC: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 1993, pp 355–371 8. Dawson VL , Dawson TM , London ED , et al : Nitric

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R. G. Ojemann, C. M. Fisher, R. D. Adams, W. H. Sweet and P. F. J. New

, although a small amount of air entered the inferior frontal sulci, there was no air over the convexity. The reason for her impaired mental function at this time was not definitely established. Case 4 This 72-year-old woman had a history of chronic alcoholism that had ceased 13 years before admission. For 10 years slight changes in mental function had been noted, but 6 months prior to admission poor memory and confusion became particularly prominent. For 2 years there had been unsteadiness of gait, several falls, and some tremor of the hands. A diagnosis of

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Mitsunori Matsumae, Ron Kikinis, István Mórocz, Antonio V. Lorenzo, Marilyn S. Albert, Peter McL. Black and Ferenc A. Jolesz

volunteers were that at the time of the study volunteers had to be free of any severe neurological and psychiatric disorders including drug abuse or alcoholism. Ventricular enlargement due to AS was distinguished on MR images by the usual criteria: normal fourth ventricle and enlarged third and lateral ventricles, associated with absence of CSF flow void in the sylvian aqueduct. Cases of OH included two germ-cell tumors in the pineal region, two pineoblastomas, one cerebellar astrocytoma, one cerebellar meningioma, and one pontine glioma. They had a clinical syndrome of

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Rahul Raj, Era D. Mikkonen, Jari Siironen, Juha Hernesniemi, Jaakko Lappalainen and Markus B. Skrifvars

group may be one cause of heterogeneity. Furthermore, the study by Talving et al. 45 was one of the 2 prospective studies included and the only study that measured BAC from all patients, while the study by Tien et al. 47 used older retrospective patient material dating back to 1988. Chronic alcoholism is an independent negative predictor of survival and a possible risk factor for increased neurotoxicity after TBI. 16 The only study accounting for chronic alcoholism was that by Chen et al., 7 which excluded such patients. Chronic abusers are more likely to have a

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Brian J. Zink and Paul J. Feustel

(ed): Alcohol and trauma. Alcohol Alert, Nat Inst Alcohol Abuse Alcoholism 3 : 1 – 4 , 1989 Gordis E (ed): Alcohol and trauma. Alcohol Alert, Nat Inst Alcohol Abuse Alcoholism 3: 1–4, 1989 14. Gurney JG , Rivara FP , Mueller BA , et al : The effects of alcohol intoxication on the initial treatment and hospital course of patients with acute brain injury. J Trauma 33 : 709 – 713 , 1992 Gurney JG, Rivara FP, Mueller BA, et al: The effects of alcohol intoxication on the initial treatment and

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Harvey S. Levin, Robert G. Grossman, James E. Rose and Graham Teasdale

admissions over a 3-year period but who recovered to a testable (better than persistent vegetative) state. Admission to the study was restricted to patients ranging in age between 16 and 50 years who had a negative pre-injury history for alcoholism, drug abuse, and neuropsychiatric disorder. The severity of injury was determined by the Glasgow Coma Scale 21 and by duration of coma. The Glasgow Coma Scale was rated retrospectively from the admission examination in some cases and prospectively in more recent patients. Only patients with an admission total score of 8 or

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Chris Xenos, Spyros Sgouros and Kalyan Natarajan

31. Sgouros S , Goldin JH , Hockley AD , et al : Intracranial volume change in childhood. J Neurosurg 91 : 610 – 616 , 1999 Sgouros S, Goldin JH, Hockley AD, et al: Intracranial volume change in childhood. J Neurosurg 91: 610–616, 1999 32. Skullerud K : Variations in the size of the human brain. Influence of age, sex, body length, body mass index, alcoholism, Alzheimer changes, and cerebral atherosclerosis. Acta Neurol Scand Suppl 102 : 1 – 94 , 1985 Skullerud K: Variations in the