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Robert B. King

and ventral spinal cord. Pain 4 : 97 – 132 , 1977 Dennis SG, Melzack R: Pain-signalling systems in the dorsal and ventral spinal cord. Pain 4: 97–132, 1977 7. Frederickson RCA , Burgis V , Harell CE , et al : Dual actions of substance P on nociception: Possible role of endogenous opioids. Science 199 : 1359 – 1362 , 1978 Frederickson RCA, Burgis V, Harell CE, et al: Dual actions of substance P on nociception: Possible role of endogenous opioids. Science 199: 1359–1362, 1978 8

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Stephen K. Powers, John E. Adams, Michael S. B. Edwards, James E. Boggan and Yoshio Hosobuchi

: Peripheral and central nervous mechanisms of nociception, pain and pain therapy: facts and hypotheses. Adv Pain Res Ther 3 : 3 – 32 , 1979 Zimmermann M: Peripheral and central nervous mechanisms of nociception, pain and pain therapy: facts and hypotheses. Adv Pain Res Ther 3: 3–32, 1979 * Model 770 AMPL argon laser manufactured by Cooper Lasersonics, 1255 Terra Bella Avenue, Mountain View, California. † Electrodes manufactured by Grass Instruments, Inc., 101 Old Colony Avenue, Quincy, Massachusetts. ‡ Model S88 stimulator and

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Shoista Kambiz, Liron S. Duraku, Martijn Baas, Tim H. J. Nijhuis, Saniye G. Cosgun, Steven E. R. Hovius, Tom J. H. Ruigrok and Erik T. Walbeehm

was determined at 5 weeks postoperatively. All rats were habituated by exposing them to the stimuli and the environment in the week prior to performing functional tests. Pinprick Test The pinprick test was used to estimate the advancement of the area demonstrating recovery of nociception 19 , 27 The lateral and medial skin of the hind paw was pinched with a fine forceps, starting distally at the toes and ascending up toward the ankle. The spot on the skin with the positive pinch test (the animal's reflex withdrawal response) was marked and indicated on a

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Charles J. Hodge Jr., A. Vania Apkarian and Richard T. Stevens

: Dorsolateral pontospinal systems. Possible routes for catecholamine modulation of nociception. Brain Res 163 : 333 – 338 , 1979 Martin GF, Humberston AO Jr, Laxson C, et al: Dorsolateral pontospinal systems. Possible routes for catecholamine modulation of nociception. Brain Res 163: 333–338, 1979 32. Mokha SS , McMillan JA , Iggo A : Descending control of spinal nociceptive transmission. Actions produced on spinal multireceptive neurones from the nuclei locus coeruleus (LC) and raphe magnus (NRM). Exp Brain Res 58

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Webster H. Pilcher, Shirley A. Joseph and Joseph V. McDonald

, Petrusz P : Immunocytochemical localization of β -endorphin-containing neurons in the rat brain. Neuroendocrinology 3 : 28 – 42 , 1981 Finley JCW, Lindström P, Petrusz P: Immunocytochemical localization of β -endorphin-containing neurons in the rat brain. Neuroendocrinology 3: 28–42, 1981 16. Gebhart GF : Opiate and opioid peptide effects on brain stem neurons: relevance to nociception and antinociceptive mechanisms. Pain 12 : 93 – 140 , 1982 Gebhart GF: Opiate and opioid peptide effects on brain stem

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Anthony N. Grieff, George M. Ghobrial and Jack Jallo

the standard for pain management strategies. 5 However, opioid medications carry significant adverse effects, including lethargy, constipation, pruritus, tolerance, withdrawal risk, and urinary retention. Recently, multimodal approaches, which function by using lower dosages of multiple agents with different mechanisms of action to modulate nociception, have gained popularity due to their favorable side effect profiles and superior analgesic properties. 6 Within the multimodal approach to pain management in spinal surgery, the perioperative injection of local

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Friederike Knerlich-Lukoschus, Beata von der Ropp-Brenner, Ralph Lucius, Hubertus Maximilian Mehdorn and Janka Held-Feindt

nociception Antibody Dorsal Horn Dorsal Column CCR1 CCL3(MIP-1α) CXCR4 CXCL12(SDF-1α) CCR1 CCL3(MIP-1α) CXCR4 CXCL12(SDF-1α) NeuN − + − − − − − − GFAP − − − − + + + + CD11b/OX42 − − − − − † − † − † − † CD68/ED1 − − − − − † − † + + TLR-4 und und und und + + + + TRPV1 + − † − † − † + + − − TRPV2 − − − − + + − − substance P − † − † + + und und und und CGRP

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Peripheral nerve stimulation suppression of C-fiber-evoked flexion reflex in rats

Part 2: Parameters of low-rate train stimulation of skin and muscle afferent nerves

Bengt H. Sjölund

for the number of rats given (n). T = threshold; C = control; A = after stimulation; interrupted lines denote conditioning stimulation. Discussion The results of the present study show that a relevant choice of afferent input and of stimulation parameters is of importance in achieving maximal suppression of nociception by conditioning electrical nerve stimulation at low rates. This has been shown previously with regard to parameters of high-frequency continuous stimulation of cutaneous nerves, 18 where a frequency of 80 to 100 Hz appeared to be

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Jeffrey A. Steinberg, David D. Gonda, Karra Muller and Joseph D. Ciacci

nerves. 3–5 , 25 , 40 Furthermore, studies examining endometriotic nociception have shown that endometrial cells possess considerable neurotropic properties, 26 secreting factors such as nerve growth factor, which stimulates neurite growth. Mechanisms allowing endometrial cells to migrate, adhere, and infiltrate nervous tissue are under investigation, but involve the complex interactions of integrins, cadherins, and matrix metalloproteinases. 1 , 8 , 9 , 23 , 32 , 33 , 36 Conclusions Although most neurosurgeons will never be actively involved in the management

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Stephan Duetzmann, Tyler Cole, Christian Senft, Volker Seifert, John Kevin Ratliff and Jon Park

experienced immediate pain relieve that lasted for several days after the procedure. The idea of bracing to reduce skin tension has a long tradition. The German surgeon Johann Schultes invented a brace to reduce abdominal incisional tension in the 15th century. 13 His device was widely adopted and was also mentioned as a regular tool employed by the Mayo brothers starting in the 1950s. 8 We believe, however, that the simple reduction of skin tension does not completely explain this effect. The idea of fascial nociception is old and has led the way to a number of