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Joseph T. King Jr., John J. Moossy, Joel Tsevat and Mark S. Roberts

C ervical spondylotic myelopathy is a degenerative condition in which there are symptoms of neck pain, hand numbness and clumsiness, gait difficulties, sphincter dysfunction, and impotence. 5, 28, 34, 35 Treatment options for CSM include physical therapy, neck brace therapy, expectant management, and surgical spinal cord decompression with or without fusion. In case series reporting the results of surgery for CSM, investigators have described inconsistent benefits. 4, 13, 21, 26, 27, 30 In some patients status improves following cervical spinal cord

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Ching-Jen Chen, Dwight Saulle, Kai-Ming Fu, Justin S. Smith and Christopher I. Shaffrey

C omplications related to cervical spine surgery are well documented in the literature, including dysphagia, dysphonia, wound infection, neurological deficit, delayed C-5 palsy, adjacent-level disease, instrumentation failure, and pseudarthrosis. 4 , 7 Among these, dysphagia has been a consistently recognized early complication following anterior cervical spine surgery, and its reported incidence is highly variable, ranging from 1% to as high as 79%. 2 , 3 , 5 , 6 , 10 , 14 , 22 , 24 , 28 , 33 This variation is in part attributed to how dysphagia is

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Kelly B. Mahaney, Michael M. Todd, Emine O. Bayman and James C. Torner

of acutely ruptured intracranial aneurysms. The central hypothesis was that hypothermia would decrease intraoperative injury due to ischemic phenomena associated with SAH. The study measured the neurological status of patients prior to randomization, at the start of surgery, and serially during a 3-month postoperative follow-up period. The data gathered in this study provided an opportunity to examine the incidence of acute postoperative neurological deterioration and determine whether there is an association with long-term outcomes. The specific questions posed in

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Sayoa Alvarez de Eulate-Beramendi, Valérie Rigau, Luc Taillandier and Hugues Duffau

D iffuse WHO Grade II glioma (diffuse low-grade glioma [DLGG]) is an infiltrative brain tumor that will inevitably grow and become malignant. 4 As recommended by the European Guidelines, 20 extensive resection should be proposed, even beyond the abnormality visible on FLAIR MR images when possible. 23 Indeed, early and radical surgery has been reported to significantly increase the overall survival. 2 , 9 , 19 Local tumor recurrence is nonetheless usual. In these cases, additional surgery (or surgeries) should be considered because reoperation also has

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Daniel Delev, Carlos M. Quesada, Alexander Grote, Jan P. Boström, Christian Elger, Hartmut Vatter and Rainer Surges

E pilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders, affecting approximately 50 million people worldwide. 30 About 30% of the epilepsies are refractory to medical treatment 13 and are associated with devastating socioeconomic consequences, diminished quality of life, and higher morbidity and mortality rates. 2 Resective surgery is recognized as an effective treatment option for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with proven results better than medical treatment. 5 , 28 However, in approximately 30% of the patients with refractory focal epilepsy, seizures

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Anthony L. Asher, Clinton J. Devin, Brandon McCutcheon, Silky Chotai, Kristin R. Archer, Hui Nian, Frank E. Harrell Jr., Matthew McGirt, Praveen V. Mummaneni, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Kevin Foley, Steven D. Glassman and Mohamad Bydon

of a reduced sample size and, thus, statistical power. The QOD, in contrast, offers the benefits of both paradigms and allows spine surgeons to gain new insight into critical clinical topics. There is extensive literature documenting that patient smoking status is strongly associated with worse outcomes following spine surgery. One study found that rates of readmission, need for intensive care unit admission, length of stay, and total cost following spine surgery were increased for smokers relative to nonsmokers. 4 A separate study demonstrated higher rates of

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Lindsay Tetreault, Ahmed Ibrahim, Pierre Côté, Anoushka Singh and Michael G. Fehlings

C ervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is a progressive degenerative spine disease and the most common cause of spinal cord dysfunction in adults worldwide. 33 , 65 Although generally safe and effective, surgery for the treatment of CSM is associated with complications in 11%–38% of patients. 6 , 15 These include dysphagia, C-5 radiculopathy, wound infection, axial pain, and postoperative kyphosis. Guidelines for the surgical management of CSM are rapidly evolving, and surgeons must consider several variables when selecting a surgical approach. 69

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Cristina D'Angelo, Antonio Mirijello, Lorenzo Leggio, Anna Ferrulli, Vincenzo Carotenuto, Nadia Icolaro, Antonio Miceli, Vincenzo D'Angelo, Giovanni Gasbarrini and Giovanni Addolorato

are also common in patients affected by primary brain tumors, and it seems related to tumor localization, 16 , 20 whereas the type and grade of tumor do not seem to play any role. 20 At present, however, there are few studies in which anxiety and depression have been assessed with several repeated measurements over a long period following brain tumor surgery. Moreover, studies evaluating the difference between the state and trait form of anxiety are lacking. Our aim in the present study was to assess state and trait anxiety and current depression before and

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Pei-Sen Yao, Shu-Fa Zheng, Feng Wang, De-Zhi Kang and Yuan-Xiang Lin

control has been reported to be achieved in more than 76% of patients after insular glioma surgery accompanied by perilesional cortical resection. 8 Unfortunately, because most LGGs grow close to or within eloquent areas, aggressive resection can be achieved in no more than 45%. 2 , 10 Hippocampectomy and corticectomy combined with lesionectomy in patients with LGGs and intractable seizures have been shown to improve seizure control. 12 , 21 However, using intraoperative electrocorticography (ECoG) to identify epileptogenic areas, guide surgical strategy, and improve

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Abdelilah el Barzouhi, Carmen L. A. M. Vleggeert-Lankamp, Geert J. Lycklama à Nijeholt, Bas F. Van der Kallen, Wilbert B. van den Hout, Bart W. Koes and Wilco C. Peul

herniations can be measured accurately on MR images, as can the size and proportions of the spinal canal. 5 However, limited data are available concerning the predictive value of qualitative or quantitative MRI evaluations in assisting clinical decision making for surgical or nonsurgical management for sciatica. The investigators previously reported the 1-year results of a randomized controlled trial comparing early surgery with prolonged conservative care for patients with sciatica of 6 to 12 weeks' duration. 25 Although early surgery achieved more rapid relief of