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Even Angell-Petersen, Signe Spetalen, Steen J. Madsen, Chung-Ho Sun, Qian Peng, Stephen W. Carper, Mouldy Sioud and Henry Hirschberg

:600, DakoCytomation, Glostrup, Denmark) to detect brain edema. 22 A two-step immunohistochemical staining technique (Dako EnVision+ System, HRP [DAB], Dako Cytomation, Glostrup, Denmark) was used for visualization. Both tumor necrosis and neutrophil invasion, as determined based on H & E–stained sections cut through the tumor centers, were scored as none, sparse, or extensive by an independent pathologist blinded to the treatment modalities. Sample adjacent sections were stained with naphthol AS-D chloroacetate esterase to verify the interpretation of neutrophils. Monte Carlo

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Chang Sub Lee, Seok Ho Hong, Kyu-Chang Wang, Seung-Ki Kim, Joong Shin Park, Jong-Kwan Jun, Bo Hyun Yoon, Young-Ho Lee, Son Moon Shin, Yeon Kyung Lee and Byung-Kyu Cho

, PDA, ASD 20 AS, AC, ASD, cricopharyngeal incoordination 22 venous angioma 23 ACC, AC Aicardi syndrome 24 MMC, CM-II ACC, syringomyelia 27 ACC, PDA 28 ACC, AC 29 pineal cyst 31 PVL 35 ACC, CM-I 40 cortical dysplasia, PVL, congenital clubfoot 41 ACC 42 band heterotopia, PVL 44 AS * Cases with germinal matrix hemorrhage and cysts were excluded. Abbreviations: AC = arachnoid cyst; ACC = agenesis of corpus callosum; AS = aqueductal stenosis; ASD = atrial septal

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Regina Eymann, Wolf-Ingo Steudel and Michael Kiefer

: Experiences with the antisiphon device (ASD) in shunt therapy of pediatric hydrocephalus . J Neurosurg 61 : 156 – 162 , 1984 15 Hanlo PW , Cinalli G , Vandertop WP , Faber JAJ , Bøgeskov L , Børgesen SE , : Treatment of hydrocephalus determined by the European Orbis Sigma Valve II survey: a multicenter prospective 5-year shunt survival study in children and adults in whom a flow-regulating shunt was used . J Neurosurg 99 : 52 – 57 , 2003 16 Jain H , Sgouros S , Walsh AR , Hockley AD : The treatment of infantile hydrocephalus

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Jun-Hong Min, Jee-Soo Jang and Sang-Ho Lee

S pondylolisthesis , including the degenerative and isthmic types, in adults has been managed using various surgical options. Of these, PLIF and ALIF are among the most common. There have been many clinical analyses of the respective approaches, but there are not many comparative studies of approaches for managing spondylolisthesis. In addition, except for several biomechanical studies in which the authors have compared ALIF with posterolateral fusion, 1 , 14 comparative studies regarding the development of ASD in relation to each approach have been scarce

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Jeong Yoon Park, Yong Eun Cho, Sung Uk Kuh, Jun Hyung Cho, Dong Kyu Chin, Byung Ho Jin and Keun Su Kim

biomechanical and clinical studies have been conducted to address superior-segment degeneration. 13 , 15 , 16 Although the development of ASD can be considered to be part of the normal aging and degenerative processes, it appears to be at least partly influenced by the altered stresses that arise as a consequence of lumbar fusion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between ASD and pelvic parameters in patients with spondylolytic spondylolisthesis. Many risk factors for ASD have been studied. 4 , 14 Sagittal balance is the most important risk and

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Sherman C. Stein and Wensheng Guo

R , Jenny P , Herzog B : Experiences with the anti-siphon device (ASD) in shunt therapy of pediatric hydrocephalus . J Neurosurg 61 : 156 – 162 , 1984 45 Guidetti B , Gagliardi FM : Normal pressure hydrocephalus . Acta Neurochir (Wien) 27 : 1 – 9 , 1972 46 Guidetti B , Giuffrè R , Palma L , Fontana M : Hydrocephalus in infancy and childhood. Our experience of CSF shunting . Childs Brain 2 : 209 – 225 , 1976 47 Guidetti B , Occhipinti E , Riccio A : Ventriculoatrial shunt in 200 cases of non tumoral hydrocephalus

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Sherman C. Stein and Wensheng Guo

R , Jenny P , Herzog B : Experiences with the anti-siphon device (ASD) in shunt therapy of pediatric hydrocephalus . J Neurosurg 61 : 156 – 162 , 1984 67 Guidetti B , Gagliardi FM : Normal pressure hydrocephalus . Acta Neurochir (Wien) 27 : 1 – 9 , 1972 68 Guidetti B , Giuffré R , Palma L , Fontana M : Hydrocephalus in infancy and childhood. Our experience of CSF shunting . Childs Brain 2 : 209 – 225 , 1976 69 Guidetti B , Occhipinti E , Riccio A : Ventriculoatrial shunt in 200 cases of non tumoral hydrocephalus

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Dong Yeob Lee, Tag-Geun Jung and Sang-Ho Lee

functional limitation); and 3) clinical and radiological follow-up duration for a minimum of 36 months. The exclusion criteria were as follows: 1) multi-level mini-open TLIF; 2) mini-open TLIF for ASD; 3) mini-open TLIF for traumatic lumbar facture, tumor, or infection; and 4) patients classified as ASA Grade III (having severe systemic disease without functional limitation) or greater surgical risk. There were 19 women and 8 men in the patient group. Their mean age at the time of operation was 69.3 years (range 65–80 years). Degenerative spondylolisthesis was diagnosed

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Deanna Sasaki-Adams, Samer K. Elbabaa, Valerie Jewells, Lori Carter, Jeffrey W. Campbell and Ann M. Ritter

patients with DWV * System Involved No. of Patients (%) Type of Abnormality cardiac 10 of 24 (41.7) PDA, VSD, ASD, transposition, hypoplastic rt heart, pulmonary artery stenosis neurological 8 of 24 (33.3) Grade III IVH, seizures, CP, hypotonia, progressive encephalopathy, autism, microcephaly, cortical blindness gastrointestinal 5 of 24 (20.8) diaphragmatic hernia, malrotation of gut, omphalocele, TE fistula, GERD craniofacial 4 of 24 (16.7) cleft lip & palate, hypertelorism, mandibular/maxillary hypoplasia

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Jay Jagannathan, Ekawut Chankaew, Peter Urban, Aaron S. Dumont, Charles A. Sansur, John Kern, Benjamin Peeler, W. Jeffrey Elias, Francis Shen, Mark E. Shaffrey, Richard Whitehill, Vincent Arlet and Christopher I. Shaffrey

Population Three hundred patients who underwent anterior lumbar surgery at the University of Virginia were enrolled in this institutional review board–approved study. All operations were performed between August 2004 and December 2006 by 1 of 7 primary surgeons (C.I.S., V.A., R.W., M.E.S., F.S., W.J.E., and A.S.D.). Four surgeons (C.I.S., M.E.S., W.J.E., and A.S.D.) were neurosurgeons, and 3 (F.S., R.W., and V.A.) were orthopedic spine surgeons. Four surgeons routinely used vascular access surgeons while the remaining 3 performed the surgical approaches. Data were