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Kuo-Wei Wang, Han-Jung Chen, Kang Lu, Po-Chou Liliang, Chun-Kai Huang, Pi-Lien Tang, Yu-Duan Tsai, Hao-Kuang Wang and Cheng-Loong Liang

T he reported incidence of hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia in critically ill trauma patients varies from as low as 4% to as high as 87%, 24 , 31 with fatality rates varying from 6% to 59%. 10 , 12 Clinical studies have identified the risk factors for pneumonia; they are severe head injury, 27 flail chest managed by endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation, 31 length of stay in the critical care setting, 9 immobilization of the trauma patient in a conventional bed, 26 hypotension, 8 and misuse of pharmacotherapy. 1 We undertook this

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Hyoung-Sub Kim, Jong Beom Lee, Jong Hyeok Park, Ho Jin Lee, Jung Jae Lee, Shumayou Dutta, Il Sup Kim and Jae Taek Hong

compensation in the subaxial cervical spine. To reduce the risk of postoperative malalignment and subluxation of the subaxial cervical spine, the greatest care must be taken to determine the C1–2 fixation angle during surgery. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study has sought to identify the risk factors for postoperative subaxial malalignment following CVJ fixation. In an attempt to address these concerns, we evaluated changes in cervical alignment and used statistical analysis to identify risk factors for postoperative kyphotic change in the subaxial cervical

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Luciana Carrupt Machado Sogame, Milena Carlos Vidotto, José Roberto Jardim and Sonia Maria Faresin

P ostoperative pulmonary complications are common and a significant cause of perioperative morbidity. The most significant PPCs are atelectasis, pneumonia, 27 respiratory failure, and exacerbation of an underlying chronic lung disease. 33 These complications are well studied in thoracic and abdominal surgeries. Neurosurgical procedures such as craniotomy and intracranial pressure monitoring have been reported as significant risk factors for the development of pulmonary complications. As far as we know, however, no authors have analyzed the occurrence

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Brian S. Katz and Kelly D. Flemming

S troke is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States and is a leading cause of disability. In addition to selecting the appropriate antithrombotic, the identification and treatment of modifiable stroke risk factors can reduce the likelihood of first or recurrent stroke, prevent long-term morbidity and mortality after the first stroke or transient ischemia attack (TIA), and lower health care costs. 19 , 49 , 60 , 65 While preventing recurrent cerebral ischemia is the obvious target of secondary stroke prevention, additional goals include

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Hsiu-Yin Chiang, Aparna S. Kamath, Jean M. Pottinger, Jeremy D. W. Greenlee, Matthew A. Howard III, Joseph E. Cavanaugh and Loreen A. Herwaldt

M ore than 100,000 craniotomy and craniectomy procedures are performed in the US each year. Surgical site infections (SSIs) complicate from 2.2% among low-risk patients to 4.7% among high-risk patients undergoing these procedures ( http://hcupnet.ahrq.gov ). 8 , 15 Most SSIs after a craniotomy or craniectomy (CRANI) affect organ spaces (that is, subgaleal space, subdural space, cranial bone, or brain). Consequently, these infections often require surgical treatment and increase morbidity, mortality, and cost. Patient-related risk factors for SSIs after

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Jianxiong Shen, Jinqian Liang, Haiquan Yu, Guixing Qiu, Xuhong Xue and Zheng Li

T he identification and quantification of risk factors for delayed infections after spine surgery are of paramount importance to the patient and the clinician. In addition to its obvious importance for patient safety, risk factor information becomes critical as health care policy makers implement and enforce “quality” metrics. Numerous authors have reported potential risk factors for postoperative infections after pediatric spinal deformity surgery. Certain patient-related risk factors, such as underlying medical conditions and previous surgeries, are

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Noboru Hosono, Masato Namekata, Takahiro Makino, Toshitada Miwa, Takashi Kaito, Noriyoshi Kaneko and Takeshi Fuji

to the t-test (Surgeon A vs B, p = 0.832; Surgeon A vs C, p = 0.958; Surgeon A vs D, p = 0.210; Surgeon B vs C, p = 0.8529; Surgeon B vs D, p = 0.061; and Surgeon C vs D, p = 0.223) Multivariate analysis concerning the relationship between complications and risk factors (operation time, estimated intraoperative blood loss, and surgeon's experience) revealed that the operation time was the only significant risk factor for complications (operation time, p = 0.035; blood loss, p = 0.1351; surgeon's experience, p = 0.2432 [all chi-square analyses]). Discussion In

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Shigeki Yamada, Yasushi Takagi, Kazuhiko Nozaki, Ken-ichiro Kikuta and Nobuo Hashimoto

cerebral AVM hemorrhage have been reported, including age, sex, initial clinical presentation, and history of hypertension. 2 , 3 , 5–10 , 13 , 14 , 17 , 23 , 25 Other morphological features, such as size and location of the nidus of the AVM, the presence of intranidal and flow-related aneurysms, venous outflow restriction, venous ectasia, arterial feeding pattern, and mean pressure of the AVM feeding artery have also been reported to increase the risk of bleeding. 3 , 4 , 6 , 8 , 9 , 12–15 , 17 , 19 , 25–30 Several previous studies have assessed possible risk factors

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Christopher L. Taylor, Zhong Yuan, Warren R. Selman, Robert A. Ratcheson and Alfred A. Rimm

in the general population, which in autopsy series has been as high as 8%. 29 Previous studies that have attempted to determine risk factors for aneurysm rupture in patients known to harbor unruptured and untreated aneurysms have reported conflicting results. The role of systemic hypertension in both the genesis 6, 9, 25, 28, 47 and rupture 3, 24, 54–56 of intracranial aneurysms is especially controversial. Some authors have stated that hypertension is not a risk factor for aneurysm formation 6, 28 whereas others have indicated that it is. 9, 25, 47 Likewise

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Mads Rasmussen, Helle Bundgaard and Georg Emil Cold

O pening the dura mater represents a critical moment during craniotomy for brain tumors. Cerebral swelling through the craniotomy can seriously jeopardize surgical access and increase the risk of cerebral ischemia with possible worsening of the outcome. During the preoperative evaluation the anesthesiologist attempts to identify risk factors responsible for perioperative brain swelling. Traditionally, preoperative CT study data on the estimated tumor size, midline shift, and edema formation together with the clinical status of the patient (level of