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Elon Eisenberg and Hanan Waisbrod

S pinal cord stimulation (SCS) has an expanding role in the treatment of chronic intractable pain. 8 “Failed back surgery syndrome,” 7 nerve injury pain, 6 peripheral vascular disease, 1 and, possibly, intractable angina pectoris 2 have been reported as specific indications for SCS. With the development of new devices and electrodes, percutaneous electrode placement has become the most commonly used technique. The percutaneous technique allows noninvasive patient screening, improved outcome, and enhanced safety. The morbidity rate involving SCS devices is

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N. Mark Dearden, D. Gordon McDowall and Robert M. Gibson

, especially with prolonged recording. 29 The Leeds Screw Device During the last 5 years ICP measurement has been increasingly used as a guide to management of severe head injury. Recent studies indicate that ICP monitoring may contribute to early assessment of prognosis. 14, 17, 20, 21 In view of the reliance now being placed on ICP data, it is important to ensure that the information obtained from these measurement techniques is accurate. In Leeds a screw device ( Fig. 1 ) has been in use for the past 10 years to monitor ICP in severely head-injured patients

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Alberto A. Uribe, Mirza N. Baig, Erika G. Puente, Adolfo Viloria, Ehud Mendel and Sergio D. Bergese

attributable to the difficulty of positioning, monitoring, and accessing the patient's head before and during surgical procedures. To address these challenging factors and allow OR personnel to have complete control over head position and monitoring, classic devices have been modified and designed to prevent mechanical ocular compression during surgical procedures in which the patient is placed prone. Table 1 lists the advantages and disadvantages of each of the devices discussed below. TABLE 1: Devices used for surgery performed in patients in the prone position

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Tahaamin Shokuhfar, Michael C. Hurley, Anas Al-Smadi, Sameer A. Ansari, Matthew B. Potts, Babak S. Jahromi, Tord D. Alden and Ali Shaibani

A chieving fast and effective hemostasis after cerebrovascular procedures with minimal discomfort confers particular benefits in the pediatric population where patients are less cooperative and may need prolonged sedation to ensure immobilization after manual compression. The application of vascular closure devices has been broadly investigated and previously approved in adults, but their efficacy and safety have not been approved for pediatric patients, and any application of such devices in children is considered off-label. 2 , 9 In general, vascular closure

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Lars Leksell, Christer Lindquist, John R. Adler, Dan Leksell, Bengt Jernberg and Ladislau Steiner

circumvented by incorporating a downwardly suspended head-fixation device into the system. Similar to the standard Leksell instrument, this new design is compatible with computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Furthermore, it can be converted for use in animal stereotaxis by the attachment of a specially developed animal head-holder. Description of Device and Technique Apparatus The system described here incorporates the standard Leksell coordinate frame with a new fixation instrument. * The fixation instrument is a rectangular device

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Matthew J. Pierson, Daniel Wehrmann, J. Andrew Albers, Najib E. El Tecle, Dary Costa and Samer K. Elbabaa

allow for easy adjustment of the drainage rate of shunt systems via external, typically magnet-based, devices. The ability to adjust valve function could lead to fewer revisions when compared with nonprogrammable valves, and therefore may provide a cost benefit. 4 The ease of adjustment of these valves via a magnetic field comes with the downside of erroneous valve adjustment when exposed to other magnetic fields. This has been investigated in the setting of magnetic toys, magnetic tablet covers, cell phones, televisions, amusement park rides, and head phones. 2 , 5

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Massimo Scerrati, Alessandro Fiorentino, Massimo Fiorentino and Pietro Pola

classical orthogonal approaches of the Talairach apparatus. Description of the Instrument The target arc system and its support-set to the double grid of the Talairach stereotaxic frame are the main components of the device * ( Fig. 1 ). The target arc system consists of a graduated arc (A, Figs. 1 and 2a ), sliding on a graduated bar (B, Figs. 1 and 2b ) fixed on two lateral arms (C, Fig. 1 ). The bar permits the displacement and the locking (D, Fig. 2b ) of the sliding arc on the preestablished lateral coordinates (z-axis), the zero-point being coincident

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Samon Tavakoli, Geoffrey Peitz, William Ares, Shaheryar Hafeez and Ramesh Grandhi

be placed in the subdural space, parenchyma, or ventricle for ICP monitoring. The reliability and efficacy of such devices were studied during the 1990s and found to be reasonably accurate compared with EVDs. 23 , 24 , 26 Although EVDs remain the gold standard in ICP monitoring due to their ability to be zeroed in vivo as well as their ability to drain CSF, intraparenchymal and subdural monitors are preferred in some cases or by some providers because of the latter’s comparative ease of placement and perceived lower risk of complications. Herein, the types and

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Nai-Feng Tian, Ai-Min Wu, Li-Jun Wu, Xin-Lei Wu, Yao-Sen Wu, Xiao-Lei Zhang, Hua-Zi Xu and Yong-Long Chi

O ver the past several years, ISP devices have gained popularity, although they are still in the early stage of clinical use. 3 , 4 , 6 , 8 , 14 , 18 , 19 , 21 They provide an alternative to arthrodesis for patients with degenerative lumbar disease. Several ISP devices are currently available, and they can be categorized as static or dynamic. 3 Biomechanical studies have shown that ISP implants strongly stabilize and reduce intradiscal pressure during extension but that they have little effect during flexion, lateral bending, and axial rotation. 8 , 19

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Richard C. Ostrup, Thomas G. Luerssen, Lawrence F. Marshall and Mark H. Zornow

I ntracranial pressure (ICP) monitors that are currently in use include ventricular catheters, sub-arachnoid screws, and various subdural and epidural monitors. All of these devices have recognized advantages and problems. Ventricular catheters are accurate but are occasionally difficult to place in the presence of brain swelling and shift; they may be affected by obstruction or infection as well. 1 Subarachnoid devices are easily placed but can malfunction if they become loose or are not absolutely coplanar to the brain surface. Some authors indicate that