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A. John Popp

own, fighting its way through the maze of life and feeling every moment of it.” In the area of artificial intelligence there have been predictions of computers that are conscious. Raymond Kurzweil, a futurist and inventor of pattern recognition technology, predicts that in the 2020s computer intelligence constructed by reverse engineering principles will exceed human intelligence. He additionally predicts that humans and computers will merge via nanoscale neural implants in the brains of humans. 7, 8 Whether technology ultimately will be able to diagnose the

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A. John Popp

✓ The concept of musical genius used to frame a discussion of the “art” practiced by neurosurgeons is the focus of the 2004 Presidential Address to the American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS). The musical genius, in contrast to the musically talented individual, is profiled and placed in the pantheon of those who have demonstrated extraordinary creativity. Observations and speculations about the specialization and elaboration of brain structures in musicians evolve into a discussion of artificial intelligence as a foil to what constitutes the essence of humanity. Taking an inductive approach, the author juxtaposes the conclusion about “music, musicians, and the brain” with the theme of the 2004 annual meeting of the AANS, “Advancing Patient Care Through Technology and Creativity,” to elaborate on the characteristics of the consummate neurosurgeon. (Note: Musical vignettes used in the address can be found in the accompanying article posted on Neurosurgical Focus http://www.aans.org/education/journal/neurosurgical).

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Matthew C. Cowperthwaite, Deepankar Mohanty and Mark G. Burnett

adjunct to traditional grading of tumors by a pathology lab. There is also significant interest in developing tumor prognosis classifiers based on genetic markers, with some recent success. 95 Progress has been made in developing artificial-intelligence classifier models that predict survival time based on the genomic expression patterns of select genetic loci. 71 , 78 Personalized Medicine and Tumor Drugs Lastly, we note that GWA studies may one day lead to clinical regimens that are individually tailored to each patient. For instance, genetic testing is

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John H. Sampson, James E. Herndon II, Allan H. Friedman and Amy P. Abernethy

and Quality in detailed registries like SEER will drive observational research on a national scale, and local investments in high-quality databases and registries relevant to neurosurgery will ensure we have a place at the table. Newer analytic techniques are on the horizon to help make sense of accumulating data; NIH, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and other organizations are investing in mathematical modeling, new artificial intelligence approaches, and a growing comparative effectiveness research workforce that is prepared to analyze

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Matthew A. Kirkman, Maria Ahmed, Angelique F. Albert, Mark H. Wilson, Dipankar Nandi and Nick Sevdalis

operator “and.” Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms were used to ensure our search was comprehensive. TABLE 1: The search strategy used to identify relevant studies † Stage Search Terms No. of Articles 1 ‘simulat*'.mp or ‘comput*'.mp or ‘model*'.mp or ‘technolog*'.mp or ‘tactile'.mp or ‘haptic*'.mp or ‘robot*'.mp or ‘augmented reality'.mp or ‘virtual reality'.mp or ‘artificial intelligence'.mp or ‘animal model*'.mp or MeSH/subject headings: patient simulation/ or computer simulation/ or disease simulation or simulation/ or model/ or

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Tomer Gazit, Fani Andelman, Yifat Glikmann-Johnston, Tal Gonen, Aliya Solski, Irit Shapira-Lichter, Moran Ovadia, Svetlana Kipervasser, Miriam Y. Neufeld, Itzhak Fried, Talma Hendler and Daniella Perry

– 438 , 2003 3 Amini MR , Gallinari P : Semi-supervised logistic regression . 15th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence Amsterdam , IOS Press , 2002 . 390 – 394 4 Andelman F , Kipervasser S , Maimon S , Fried I , Parmet Y , Neufeld MY : A revised intracarotid etomidate memory (Wada) procedure . Acta Neurol Scand 127 : 97 – 102 , 2013 5 Andelman F , Kipervasser S , Reider-Groswasser II , Fried I , Neufeld MY : Hippocampal memory function as reflected by the intracarotid sodium methohexital Wada test

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Karthik Madhavan, John Paul G. Kolcun, Lee Onn Chieng and Michael Y. Wang

Tomorrow Inc.) feature articulation at finger, wrist, elbow, and shoulder joints with seeming precision ( http://theroboarm.com ). It is designed for control by a glove or other sensors, such that the RoboArm mirrors the motion of the user’s own limb. But paradoxically, the most advanced control systems may sacrifice authority to the robot itself. The field of artificial intelligence has seen dramatic success in recent years in the decision-making 7 and learning capacity of machines as well as their ability to interact with human operators using natural language systems

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Sunho Ko, Atsushi Nakazawa, Yusuke Kurose, Kanako Harada, Mamoru Mitsuishi, Shigeo Sora, Naoyuki Shono, Hirofumi Nakatomi, Nobuhito Saito and Akio Morita

, 6 the responsibility of the operator is greater in our scenario, which is an advantage considering regulatory issues. Our approach is a step toward artificial intelligence (AI)–based robotic surgery, and this paper describes possible methods to associate a surgeon’s hand motion with the intended motion accuracy. Once the learning process is implemented, the methods will be sophisticated, leading to an autonomous and real-time customization of robotic control parameters. The next step is to collect data from board-certified neurosurgeons and assimilate the data

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Nobuhiko Ichinose, Seiji Hama, Toshio Tsuji, Zu Soh, Hideaki Hayashi, Yoshihiro Kiura, Shigeyuki Sakamoto, Takahito Okazaki, Daizo Ishii, Katsuhiro Shinagawa and Kaoru Kurisu

pattern classification . IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern C 29 : 60 – 72 , 1999 10.1109/5326.740670 30 Warwick K : March of the Machines: The Breakthrough in Artificial Intelligence . Urbana, IL : University of Illinois Press , 2004 31 Yadav JS , Wholey MH , Kuntz RE , Fayad P , Katzen BT , Mishkel GJ , : Protected carotid-artery stenting versus endarterectomy in high-risk patients . N Engl J Med 351 : 1493 – 1501 , 2004 15470212 10.1056/NEJMoa040127

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Robert E. Harbaugh

N eurosurgeons are faced with a dizzying array of data that need to be analyzed when making clinical decisions about diagnosis, prognosis, and management. Over the last 30 years we have seen the rapid growth in computer processing power and ever-accelerating interest in how to use this computational ability for better data analysis. One aspect of this is whether or not artificial intelligence methods, such as machine learning algorithms and artificial neural networks (ANNs), could improve our capabilities for accurate diagnosis and prognosis and improved patient