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Adeel Ilyas, Ching-Jen Chen, Dale Ding, Davis G. Taylor, Shayan Moosa, Cheng-Chia Lee, Or Cohen-Inbar and Jason P. Sheehan

T he optimal management of large (volume > 10 cm 3 ) brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) is controversial. Options for intervention include resection, embolization, and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), alone or in combination. 6 , 16 , 17 , 26 , 64 , 79 As stand-alone treatment modalities for large AVMs, microsurgery is associated with relatively high rates of morbidity and mortality, whereas embolization results in low rates of complete nidal obliteration. 35 , 39 , 41 Single-session SRS (SS-SRS) is effective for many small- to medium-sized AVMs but

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Ranjodh Singh, Vanessa Bellat, Melinda Wang, Melanie E. Schweitzer, Y. Linda Wu, Ching-Hsuan Tung, Mark M. Souweidane and Benedict Law

volume of distribution (Vd) is required to ensure that prolonged infusions do not lead to systemic toxicity. Despite the advantages of prolonged CED and the recent development of CED implantable catheters, 6 , 11 single-session CED remains the current clinical practice. Drug vehicles, namely nanocarriers, provide another means to circumvent rapid drug clearance after CED. Peptide-based nanofibers (NFPs) loaded with drugs may allow for sustained drug release and maintain effective drug concentrations for an extended period sufficient for cancer therapy. In the current

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Robert L. Grubb Jr., Marcus E. Raichle, John O. Eichling and Mokhtar H. Gado

satisfactorily duplicates the clinical situation of vasospasm plus neurological deterioration. To provide this information, we have measured not only regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), but also regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV), and regional cerebral oxygen utilization (rCMRO 2 ) in patients with SAH. Clinical Material and Methods We conducted 45 studies of rCBV, rCBF, and rCMRO 2 in 30 unselected, but not formally randomized, patients undergoing diagnostic cerebral angiography for evaluation of an SAH due to a ruptured intracranial aneurysm. Eighteen patients

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Haakon Lindekleiv, Ellisiv B. Mathiesen, Olav H. Førde, Tom Wilsgaard and Tor Ingebrigtsen

E vidence that mortality after complex surgical procedures is lower at high-volume centers has led to suggestions that these surgeries should be centralized to high-volume centers. 5 , 11 However, there is substantial heterogeneity in the results and hospital volume may not be a valid proxy for quality of care. 9 , 10 Studies of hospital volume and mortality after treatment for ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms indicate a general trend toward better results at higher-volume hospitals. 1–4 , 7 , 8 , 12–14 , 16–18 However, all studies except

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Raphael Meier, Nicole Porz, Urspeter Knecht, Tina Loosli, Philippe Schucht, Jürgen Beck, Johannes Slotboom, Roland Wiest and Mauricio Reyes

for the radical resection of contrast-enhancing tumor (CET) compared with subtotal resection. 5 , 17 Resection of CET is usually quantified by reporting the extent of resection (EOR) or residual tumor volume (RTV). Consequently, both EOR 6 , 16 , 24–26 , 31 , 36 , 40 and RTV 6 , 16 were found to be associated with patient survival, suggesting their roles as prognostic biomarkers. 10 , 11 , 25 This has likewise motivated the use of intraoperative 5-aminolevulinic acid fluorescence and electrophysiological mapping and/or intraoperative MRI–assisted surgery in many

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Florian Scheichel, Branko Popadic, Karl Ungersboeck and Franz Marhold

Imaging All patients underwent CCT before surgery. We analyzed the cSDH in terms of acuity, size, volume, location density, and midline shift on the last CCT scan before surgery. The hematoma density of each side was classified as homogeneous, separated, laminar, or membranous based on the description of Nakaguchi et al. 10 The preoperative hematoma volumes were calculated on the last CT scan acquired before surgery using the XYZ/2 method, which has been described to be valid for cSDH by Sucu et al. 16 To calculate the hematoma volume, we identified the depth by

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Jochen Cuypers, Frank Matakas and Sam J. Potolicchio Jr.

, does not significantly enhance transcapillary water filtration. Water content of the brains in Groups A and B was normal, although venous congestion lasted from 80 to 100 minutes. The fact that venous hypertension alone did not increase the water content of the brain means that the enormous swelling of the brain observed in Group B must have been almost exclusively caused by vessel dilatation. This fact supports the view that brain swelling should be distinguished from brain edema. 5 Venous hypertension increases brain bulk by expanding intravascular volume but

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Andrew M. Baschnagel, Kurt D. Meyer, Peter Y. Chen, Daniel J. Krauss, Rick E. Olson, Daniel R. Pieper, Ann H. Maitz, Hong Ye and Inga Siiner Grills

that impairment in neurocognition can be avoided by withholding upfront WBRT and using WBRT for salvage treatment. 5 Current guidelines and prognostic scales, such as the Diagnosis-Specific Graded Prognostic Assessment (DS-GPA), 15 take into consideration the number of brain lesions but not the tumor volume. Emerging data suggest that tumor volume may be an important predictor of disease burden and outcome. 4 , 11 Because there are limited published data examining tumor volume, we have conducted a review of our institution's experience analyzing patients who were

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Jasper H. van Lieshout, Ina Pumplün, Igor Fischer, Marcel A. Kamp, Jan F. Cornelius, Hans J. Steiger, Hieronymus D. Boogaarts, Athanasios K. Petridis and Kerim Beseoglu

drained volume of CSF is documented hourly. Data Collection and Definitions For all 194 included patients epidemiological, clinical, and radiological data were collected. From this study population the number of rebleeding events was identified. Aneurysmal rebleeding was defined as CT-confirmed episodes of in-hospital rebleeding in which imaging was prompted by any neurological deterioration, or otherwise clinical suspicious events in comatose patients, such as bradycardia, sudden rise in blood pressure, or the appearance of fresh blood through ventricular drainage. 2

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Amparo Wolf, Amy Tyburczy, Jason Chao Ye, Girish Fatterpekar, Joshua S. Silverman and Douglas Kondziolka

association. 5 , 21 An increased length of the trigeminal nerve has been associated with reduced efficacy of GKS for TN, 13 but it had no impact in other studies. 3 , 7 Proximal atrophy of the trigeminal nerve, which significantly correlates with the severity of NVC, has been found to be predictive of a positive response after microvascular decompression (MVD), 9 although its impact on outcomes after GKS is unknown. This study aimed to determine the impact of trigeminal nerve length and volume, the dose-volume relationship, and NVC on pain outcomes after GKS for TN