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Marino Zorzon, Miran Skrap, Silvana Diodato, Davide Nasuelli and Bruno Lucci

desirable to avoid the consequences of a long-lasting compression of the spinal cord. Surgical outcome is generally favorable and short-term recurrences have not been reported; 2 however, long-term follow-up studies are lacking. Mainly for ventral cysts, transoral decompression, which allows complete excision, has been performed; 2, 3, 6 however, the posterolateral surgical approach, which is better tolerated by the patient, has been considered adequate by most authors. 1, 2, 4, 5, 7–9 We report two additional cases of synovial cysts situated posteriorly to the dens

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Mauricio J. Avila, Jesse Skoch, Vernard S. Fennell, Sheri K. Palejwala, Christina M. Walter, Samuel Kim and Ali A. Baaj

underwent attempted resection at an outside facility, but intraoperative biopsy demonstrated chordoma and the surgery was halted. He was transferred to our institution for definitive management. FIG. 7. Case 2. Preoperative axial T2-weighted MR image demonstrating a large left-sided paravertebral lesion. Operation The surgical approach was staged. Posteriorly, the spine was stabilized from T-6 to T-10 with pedicle screws, and hemiosteotomies were made to create a margin. Forty-eight hours later, Stage 2 was performed through a thoracotomy with the

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Tamara D. Simon, Matthew P. Kronman, Kathryn B. Whitlock, Nancy E. Gove, Nicole Mayer-Hamblett, Samuel R. Browd, D. Douglas Cochrane, Richard Holubkov, Abhaya V. Kulkarni, Marcie Langley, David D. Limbrick Jr., Thomas G. Luerssen, W. Jerry Oakes, Jay Riva-Cambrin, Curtis Rozzelle, Chevis Shannon, Mandeep Tamber, John C. Wellons III, William E. Whitehead and John R. W. Kestle

again, evidence is limited because no randomized controlled clinical trials have been conducted, and prior studies have been retrospective and limited in size. 43 Duration of intravenous antibiotic use varies widely 17 , 38 and depends, in part, on the surgical approach used, 27 , 49 pathogen involved, 7 , 46 , 55 CSF laboratory results, and persistence of the pathogen. We sought a better understanding of the characteristics associated with reinfection following first CSF shunt infection because these may inform optimal treatment strategies at the time of first

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Jorge A. Picaza, Sam E. Hunter and Bland W. Cannon

. The side effects of this method were mild and transitory; no major complications occurred after the technique had been refined. Many neurosurgeons have catheterized the foramen of Monro in stereotaxic surgery. Descriptions of the technique, however, have been infrequent. 1, 3, 7 Our adaptation of the procedure incorporates specific modifications in the surgical approach, the cannula for catheterization, the contrast medium, and the x-ray technique. Technique With the patient lying supine, the x-ray cassette for vertical anteroposterior views is placed

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Tomasz A. Dziedzic and Andrzej Marchel

intramedullary spinal cord cavernous malformations . Neurosurg Focus 29 ( 3 ): E12 , 2010 10.3171/2010.6.FOCUS10139 20809753 6 Mitha AP , Turner JD , Spetzler RF : Surgical approaches to intramedullary cavernous malformations of the spinal cord . Neurosurgery 68 : 317 – 324 , 2011 21368697 7 Reitz M , Burkhardt T , Vettorazzi E , Raimund F , Fritzsche E , Schmidt NO , : Intramedullary spinal cavernoma: clinical presentation, microsurgical approach, and long-term outcome in a cohort of 48 patients . Neurosurg Focus 39 ( 2 ): E19 , 2015 10

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Zhiyu Zhang, Yingqi Hua, Guodong Li, Wei Sun, Shuo Hu, Jian Li and Zhengdong Cai

and a corresponding surgical approach guideline. Methods Clinical Data General Information We retrospectively studied the clinical courses of 92 patients with sacral tumors who underwent resection in the orthopedics and general surgery departments at Changhai Hospital between January 2000 and August 2005. The age, sex, and clinical manifestations were investigated in detail. The average age of the patients at diagnosis was 46.5 years (range 16–70 years). There were 38 female and 54 male patients. All patients underwent surgery, and the diagnoses were

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Pantaleo Romanelli, Alexander Muacevic and Salvatore Striano

characterization of HH neurons has shown that an intrinsic epileptogenic activity is present. 4 , 5 , 21 , 22 , 32 , 54 Epileptogenic HH are invariably attached to one or both of the mammillary bodies. 15 Spread of the epileptogenic activity and induction of generalized seizures require access to the thalamocortical loops via the mammillothalamic tract. 5 , 15 , 21 , 32 Several surgical approaches have been proposed for the treatment of epileptogenic HHs, including microsurgical resection via the transcallosal interforniceal route or the pterional or subfrontal translamina

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Julia Onken, Kathrin Obermüller, Franziska Staub-Bartelt, Bernhard Meyer, Peter Vajkoczy and Maria Wostrack

that gross-total resection (GTR) is achieved in 82%–99% of cases. 3 , 7 , 14 , 16 In these publications, GTR is defined as tumor removal without excision of its dural attachment and with the dura electrically coagulated only, according to a Simpson grade II resection. 15 , 19 , 21 In contrast to cranial MNGs, sMNGs have recurrence rates that range merely from 1.3% to 6.4% after a Simpson grade II resection has been achieved, and hence the procedure seems sufficient to control recurrence rate. 16 , 19 To achieve GTR, different surgical approaches have been applied

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Cesare Giorgi and Daria Riva

T he best surgical approach to intraventricular midline tumors has long been debated. The transcortical-transventricular approach, first described by Dandy 6 in 1922, was used by other authors 24 until the midline approach, incorporating the technique described in 1944 by Busch, 3 was adopted. This was later modified with the introduction of transcallosal dissection. 25 The arguments in favor of the midline approach largely overwhelm those for the transcortical route, which is preferable only in cases with enlarged ventricles. The transcallosal approach

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Burak Sade, Gérard Mohr and Jean-Jacques Dufour

used. Clinical Material and Methods The charts of 391 consecutive patients who had undergone 413 procedures for VS in otoneurosurgical collaboration between 1980 and 2004 were retrospectively reviewed. Non–vestibular schwannoma lesions of the CPA and malignant schwannomas were excluded from our analysis. In addition, VSs that had been treated via a combined surgical approach were excluded because of the relatively small number of patients in that group. The RS approach was used in 338 procedures, and the TL in 75. All patients who underwent the RS approach had