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Srdjan Babic and Djordje Radak

TO THE EDITOR: We read the recently published article on vertebral artery (VA) transposition by Rangel-Castilla et al. 5 (Rangel-Castilla L, Kalani MYS, Cronk K, et al: Vertebral artery transposition for revascularization of the posterior circulation: a critical assessment of temporary and permanent complications and outcomes. J Neurosurg 122:671–667, March 2015) and would like to make several comments. Although there is an enormous amount of debate about the pros and cons of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid artery stenting (CAS), the treatment

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Giuseppe Lanzino

embolization, some of the largest series (probably more representative of the actual complication rates) were excluded from analysis, although summarized in one of the accompanying tables. In the Discussion section, Shah and coworkers provide a thoughtful analysis of the pros and cons of preoperative meningioma embolization. I agree with the authors that preoperative embolization is safe and probably useful in the occlusion of distal meningeal feeders to selected very large or giant lesions. In these cases, preoperative embolization may “soften” the tumor and facilitate

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Sheng-Tzung Tsai, Hsin-Chi Tsai, Chung-Chih Kuo, Hsiang-Yi Hung, Chien-Hui Lee and Shin-Yuan Chen

the presumed territory of influence from treatments are prerequisite to a successful outcome for stereotactic neurosurgery. Given that more neurosurgeons adopt various stereotactic techniques for neuropsychiatric patients, a comparative study in the future could provide more insight into how we weigh pros and cons. We can anticipate that this evidence could provide our neuropsychiatric patients with more clear information without bias, which would make them more willing to accept such treatments. Disclosure The authors report no conflict of interest

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Guy L. Odom

during the turbulent times of student unrest in the 1960's. When appointed dean in 1960, he was also appointed vice provost of the University, a position which he held until 1967. He was then appointed chancellor pro tern and assistant to the president of the University. While holding these academic appointments, he began the long-range planning of the enlargement of the hospital with the building of Duke Hospital North. In 1969, he was appointed James B. Duke Professor of Neurosurgery. Barnes Woodhall, M.D., 1905–1985 During his career he received many

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Bryan W. Cunningham, John C. Sefter, Nianbin Hu and Paul C. McAfee

2, autograft + cervical cage; Group 3, AGF + cervical cage; and Group 4, autograft + anterior plate. F ig . 1. Intraoperative view of the Rabea cage packed with autograft (left) and AGF/Pro-Osteon (right) . Surgical Technique and Interbody Treatment Procedures After normal health status determination, each animal was sedated with an intravenous injection of ketamine (10 mg/kg) and diazepam (0.25 mg/kg), followed by endotracheal intubation and general anesthesia using 1.5–2.0% isoflurane. Following aseptic preparation of the anterior cervical

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Gyanendra Kumar, Reza Bavarsad Shahripour and Mark R. Harrigan

, and the combined value without a particular study calculated. All analyses were performed on Mix 2.0 Pro statistical package (BiostatXL). Results The search strategy and study selection are outlined in the flow diagram ( Fig. 1 ). Seventeen studies (n = 2870 patients) met inclusion criteria. 3 , 13 , 15 , 16 , 22 , 27 , 29 , 30 , 33 , 34 , 39–41 , 44 , 46 , 47 , 51 Study characteristics are summarized in Table 1 . No studies addressed the comparative impact of TCD vasospasm on functional outcome and mortality. Only 5 studies used the Lindegaard ratio for

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Hideyuki Arima, Steven D. Glassman, Keith Bridwell, Yu Yamato, Mitsuru Yagi, Kota Watanabe, Morio Matsumoto, Satoshi Inami, Hiroshi Taneichi, Yukihiro Matsuyama and Leah Y. Carreon

S pinal deformity due to lumbar spine degeneration is accompanied by coronal and/or sagittal plane malalignment and low-back pain, affecting activities of daily living (ADLs), standing posture, and cosmesis. Radiological parameters have historically been used in the evaluation of spinal deformity. In recent years, patient-reported outcomes (PROs) have been regarded as a more relevant measure of treatment effectiveness. Several studies have reported that the Scoliosis Research Society-22r questionnaire (SRS-22r) is reliable, valid, and responsive to change in

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Hsuan-Kan Chang, Wen-Cheng Huang, Tsung-Hsi Tu, Li-Yu Fay, Chao-Hung Kuo, Chih-Chang Chang, Ching-Lan Wu, Jiing-Feng Lirng, Jau-Ching Wu, Henrich Cheng and Shih-Ming Hsu

cervical discectomy was the same for all ACDF patients. Properly sized cervical cages and plates were chosen and implanted securely on the cervical vertebrae after total discectomy. Clinical and Radiological Follow-Up Regular follow-up examinations in the outpatient clinic were performed at 6 weeks and 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery for all patients. Clinical patient-reported outcomes (PROs) were established using the visual analog scale (VAS) for arm and neck pain, Neck Disability Index (NDI), and modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) scale. Routine

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Oral Presentations

2010 AANS Annual Meeting Philadelphia, Pennsylvania May 1–5, 2010

Synthes Cerebrovascular Section Resident/Fellow Award Genome-Wide Survey of Early Gene Expression in Rats and Non-Human Primates after Stroke: Differential Expression of Brain Vascular Permeability and Pro-Apoptotic Genes Differs Between Species Douglas J. Cook , MD , Lucy Teves , BSC , and Michael Tymianski , MD, PhD (Toronto, Canada) 8 2010 113 2 A414 A415 This is an Open Access article: verbatim copying and redistribution of this article are permitted in all media for any purpose. 2010 Introduction: Although

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Jong Eun Lee, Yone Jung Yoon, Michael E. Moseley and Midori A. Yenari

-kD type IV collagenase, is not normally expressed, but its expression is induced after ischemia and appears to potentiate injury. 1 The pro—MMP-9 is induced in the ischemic core within 2 hours, with enzymatic activity and mRNA induction being detected by 4 hours. 12 Activation of MMP-9 is associated with a breakdown of the BBB 3, 39 and, in at least one study, was correlated with areas of hemorrhagic conversion after focal ischemia. 19 In the present paper we characterize the influence of hypothermia on MMP family protease expression and activity and on the