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Renaud Lafage, Justin S. Smith, Basel Sheikh Alshabab, Christopher Ames, Peter G. Passias, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Gregory Mundis Jr., Themistocles Protopsaltis, Munish Gupta, Eric Klineberg, Han Jo Kim, Shay Bess, Frank Schwab, Virginie Lafage, and on behalf of the International Spine Study Group (ISSG)

OBJECTIVE

Cervical deformity (CD) is a complex condition with a clear impact on patient quality of life, which can be improved with surgical treatment. Previous study following thoracolumbar surgery demonstrated a spontaneous and maintained improvement in cervical alignment following lumbar pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO). In this study the authors aimed to investigate the complementary questions of whether cervical alignment induces a change in global alignment and whether this change stabilizes over time.

METHODS

To analyze spontaneous changes, this study included only patients with at least 5 levels remaining unfused following surgery. After data were obtained for the entire cohort, repeated-measures analyses were conducted between preoperative baseline and 3-month and 1-year follow-ups with a post hoc analysis and Bonferroni correction. A subanalysis of patients with 2-year follow-up was performed.

RESULTS

One-year follow-up data were available for 121 of 168 patients (72%), and 89 patients had at least 5 levels remaining unfused following surgery. Preoperatively there was a moderate anterior cervical alignment (C2–7, −7.7° [kyphosis]; T1 slope minus cervical lordosis, 37.1°; cervical sagittal vertebral axis [cSVA], 37 mm) combined with a posterior global alignment (SVA, −8 mm) with lumbar hyperextension (pelvic incidence [PI] minus lumbar lordosis [LL] mismatch [PI-LL], −0.6°). Patients underwent a significant correction of the cervical alignment (median ΔC2–7, 13.6°). Simultaneously, PI-LL, T1 pelvic angle (TPA), and SVA increased significantly (all p < 0.05) between baseline and 3-month and 1-year follow-ups. Post hoc analysis demonstrated that all of the changes occurred between baseline and 3 months. Subanalysis of patients with complete 2-year follow-up demonstrated similar results, with stable postoperative thoracolumbar alignment achieved at 3 months.

CONCLUSIONS

Correction of cervical malalignment can have a significant impact on thoracolumbar regional and global alignment. Peak relaxation of compensatory mechanisms is achieved by the 3-month follow-up and tends to remain stable. Subanalysis with 2-year data further supports this finding. These findings can help to identify when the results of cervical surgery on global alignment can be best evaluated.

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Ferran Pellisé, Miquel Serra-Burriel, Alba Vila-Casademunt, Jeffrey L. Gum, Ibrahim Obeid, Justin S. Smith, Frank S. Kleinstück, Shay Bess, Javier Pizones, Virginie Lafage, Francisco Javier S. Pérez-Grueso, Frank J. Schwab, Douglas C. Burton, Eric O. Klineberg, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Ahmet Alanay, Christopher P. Ames, and on behalf of the International Spine Study Group (ISSG) and European Spine Study Group (ESSG)

OBJECTIVE

The reported rate of complications and cost of adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery, associated with an exponential increase in the number of surgeries, cause alarm among healthcare payers and providers worldwide. The authors conjointly analyzed the largest prospective available ASD data sets to define trends in quality-of-care indicators (complications, reinterventions, and health-related quality of life [HRQOL] outcomes) since 2010.

METHODS

This is an observational prospective longitudinal cohort study. Patients underwent surgery between January 2010 and December 2016, with > 2 years of follow-up data. Demographic, surgical, radiological, and HRQOL (i.e., Oswestry Disability Index, SF-36, Scoliosis Research Society-22r) data obtained preoperatively and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery were evaluated. Trends and changes in indicators were analyzed using local regression (i.e., locally estimated scatterplot smoothing [LOESS]) and adjusted odds ratio (OR).

RESULTS

Of the 2286 patients included in the 2 registries, 1520 underwent surgery between 2010 and 2016. A total of 1151 (75.7%) patients who were treated surgically at 23 centers in 5 countries met inclusion criteria. Patient recruitment increased progressively (2010–2011 vs 2015–2016: OR 1.64, p < 0.01), whereas baseline clinical characteristics (age, American Society of Anesthesiologists class, HRQOL scores, sagittal deformity) did not change. Since 2010 there has been a sustained reduction in major and minor postoperative complications observed at 90 days (major: OR 0.59; minor: OR 0.65; p < 0.01); at 1 year (major: OR 0.52; minor: 0.75; p < 0.01); and at 2 years of follow-up (major: OR 0.4; minor: 0.80; p < 0.01) as well as in the 2-year reintervention rate (OR 0.41, p < 0.01). Simultaneously, there has been a slight improvement in the correction of sagittal deformity (i.e., pelvic incidence–lumbar lordosis mismatch: OR 1.11, p = 0.19) and a greater gain in quality of life (i.e., Oswestry Disability Index 26% vs 40%, p = 0.02; Scoliosis Research Society-22r, self-image domain OR 1.16, p = 0.13), and these are associated with a progressive reduction of surgical aggressiveness (number of fused segments: OR 0.81, p < 0.01; percent pelvic fixation: OR 0.66, p < 0.01; percent 3-column osteotomies: OR 0.63, p < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

The best available data show a robust global improvement in quality metrics in ASD surgery over the last decade. Surgical complications and reoperations have been reduced by half, while improvement in disability increased and correction rates were maintained, in patients with similar baseline characteristics.

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Gregory M. Mundis Jr., Jakub Godzik, Paul Park, Kai-Ming Fu, Stacie Tran, Juan S. Uribe, Michael Y. Wang, Khoi D. Than, David O. Okonkwo, Adam S. Kanter, Pierce D. Nunley, Neel Anand, Richard G. Fessler, Dean Chou, Renaud Lafage, Robert K. Eastlack, and on behalf of the International Spine Study Group

OBJECTIVE

Traditional surgery for adult spinal deformity (ASD) is effective but may result in exposure-related morbidity. Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) can potentially minimize this morbidity; however, high-level evidence is lacking. This study presents the first prospective multicenter investigation of MIS approaches for ASD.

METHODS

A prospective multicenter study was conducted. Inclusion criteria were age ≥ 18 years, with at least one of the following radiographic criteria: coronal Cobb (CC) angle ≥ 20°, sagittal vertical axis (SVA) > 5 cm, pelvic tilt (PT) > 25°, and thoracic kyphosis > 60°. Additional inclusion criteria were circumferential MIS, including interbody fusion (transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion [TLIF], lateral lumbar interbody fusion [LLIF], or anterior lumbar interbody fusion [ALIF]) with percutaneous posterior fixation on a minimum of 4 intervertebral levels. Radiographic and clinical outcomes (visual analog scale [VAS], Oswestry Disability Index [ODI], and Scoliosis Research Society–22 [SRS-22]) were collected preoperatively and at 12 months postoperatively; preoperative and postoperative values were compared using paired Student t-tests.

RESULTS

Seventy-five patients with a minimum 1-year follow-up were identified (75 of 111; 67.6%). The mean ± SD age was 68.8 ± 9.0 years, and 48 patients (64%) were female. Patients underwent a mean of 6.7 ± 2.9 levels of fusion with LLIF (85%), ALIF (55%), and TLIF (9%); the mean estimated blood loss was 547.6 ± 567.2 mL, and the mean length of stay was 7.0 ± 3.7 days. Significant improvements were observed in ODI (−19 ± 12.9, p < 0.001), SRS-22 (0.8 ± 0.66, p < 0.001), VAS back (−4.3 ± 2.8, p < 0.001), and VAS leg (−3.0 ± 3.2, p < 0.001) scores. Significant decreases in SVA (−26.4 ± 53.6 mm; p < 0.001), pelvic incidence–lumbar lordosis (−11.3° ± 14.9°, p < 0.001), and CC angle (−12.1° ± 11.8°, p < 0.001) were also observed. Complications occurred in 39 patients (52%); 11 patients (15%) experienced major complications, and 16 patients (21%) required reoperation.

CONCLUSIONS

MIS approaches for ASD resulted in meaningful symptomatic improvement. The complication rates were similar to historic norms, with a fairly high reoperation rate at 1 year. Longer follow-up will be necessary to evaluate the durability of this approach in the treatment of ASD.