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Shlomi Constantini, Andy Kanner, Adi Friedman, Ygal Shoshan, Zvi Israel, Eli Ashkenazi, Moshe Gertel, Amiran Even, Yoshi Shevach, Mordechay Shalit, Felix Umansky and Zvi H. Rappaport

Object. Thromboembolic phenomena (TEPs) continue to be a significant source of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing neurosurgery. Although the efficacy of low-dose heparin in preventing TEPs in neurosurgical patients is well established, neurosurgeons are reluctant to use it perioperatively because of concern for increased bleeding complications. To clarify this issue, the authors used a prospective, randomized, double-blind design to evaluate the safety of minidose heparin treatment in patients undergoing surgery for supratentorial brain tumors.

Methods. One hundred three patients, all 40 years of age or older, were treated with either 5000 U of heparin (55 patients) or placebo (48 patients) starting 2 hours before surgery and continuing until full mobilization or for 7 days. Both groups were well matched for sex, weight, duration of surgery, and tumor diagnosis.

Subjective and objective parameters were used to estimate and calculate the perioperative bleeding tendency in all patients. Red blood cell mass loss was calculated by assessing the preoperative and postoperative hematocrit and the patient's weight. Intraoperative blood loss was determined by measuring the quantity of blood in the suction containers and subtracting the amount of irrigation fluids. Postoperative bleeding was measured by determining the amount of fluid in the subgaleal drain, and blood cell replacement was monitored during and after the procedure. Intracranial bleeding was graded according to findings on the postoperative computerized tomography scan obtained 48 to 72 hours after surgery. In addition, the senior surgeon in each case was asked to assess each patient's bleeding tendency during the operation. The results showed that perioperative administration of heparin did not significantly alter bleeding tendency by any measured parameter. The surgeon was blinded to which group individual patients had been allocated.

Conclusions. Perioperative minidose heparin is safe for use in patients undergoing craniotomy for supratentorial tumors. This relatively simple and inexpensive measure is recommended as a routine regimen for the prevention of TEPs in patients undergoing neurosurgery.

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John A. Thompson, Salam Oukal, Hagai Bergman, Steven Ojemann, Adam O. Hebb, Sara Hanrahan, Zvi Israel and Aviva Abosch

OBJECTIVE

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has become standard care for the surgical treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Reliable interpretation of microelectrode recording (MER) data, used to guide DBS implantation surgery, requires expert electrophysiological evaluation. Recent efforts have endeavored to use electrophysiological signals for automatic detection of relevant brain structures and optimal implant target location.

The authors conducted an observational case-control study to evaluate a software package implemented on an electrophysiological recording system to provide online objective estimates for entry into and exit from the STN. In addition, they evaluated the accuracy of the software in selecting electrode track and depth for DBS implantation into STN, which relied on detecting changes in spectrum activity.

METHODS

Data were retrospectively collected from 105 MER-guided STN-DBS surgeries (4 experienced neurosurgeons; 3 sites), in which estimates for entry into and exit from the STN, DBS track selection, and implant depth were compared post hoc between those determined by the software and those determined by the implanting neurosurgeon/neurophysiologist during surgery.

RESULTS

This multicenter study revealed submillimetric agreement between surgeon/neurophysiologist and software for entry into and exit out of the STN as well as optimal DBS implant depth.

CONCLUSIONS

The results of this study demonstrate that the software can reliably and accurately estimate entry into and exit from the STN and select the track corresponding to ultimate DBS implantation.

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John A. Thompson, Salam Oukal, Hagai Bergman, Steven Ojemann, Adam O. Hebb, Sara Hanrahan, Zvi Israel and Aviva Abosch

OBJECTIVE

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has become standard care for the surgical treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Reliable interpretation of microelectrode recording (MER) data, used to guide DBS implantation surgery, requires expert electrophysiological evaluation. Recent efforts have endeavored to use electrophysiological signals for automatic detection of relevant brain structures and optimal implant target location.

The authors conducted an observational case-control study to evaluate a software package implemented on an electrophysiological recording system to provide online objective estimates for entry into and exit from the STN. In addition, they evaluated the accuracy of the software in selecting electrode track and depth for DBS implantation into STN, which relied on detecting changes in spectrum activity.

METHODS

Data were retrospectively collected from 105 MER-guided STN-DBS surgeries (4 experienced neurosurgeons; 3 sites), in which estimates for entry into and exit from the STN, DBS track selection, and implant depth were compared post hoc between those determined by the software and those determined by the implanting neurosurgeon/neurophysiologist during surgery.

RESULTS

This multicenter study revealed submillimetric agreement between surgeon/neurophysiologist and software for entry into and exit out of the STN as well as optimal DBS implant depth.

CONCLUSIONS

The results of this study demonstrate that the software can reliably and accurately estimate entry into and exit from the STN and select the track corresponding to ultimate DBS implantation.