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Julia D. Sharma, Kiran K. Seunarine, Muhammad Zubair Tahir, and Martin M. Tisdall

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of optical frameless neuronavigation (ON) and robot-assisted (RA) stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) electrode placement in children, and to identify factors that might increase the risk of misplacement.

METHODS

The authors undertook a retrospective review of all children who underwent SEEG at their institution. Twenty children were identified who underwent stereotactic placement of a total of 218 electrodes. Six procedures were performed using ON and 14 were placed using a robotic assistant. Placement error was calculated at cortical entry and at the target by calculating the Euclidean distance between the electrode and the planned cortical entry and target points. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare the results for ON and RA placement accuracy. For each electrode placed using robotic assistance, extracranial soft-tissue thickness, bone thickness, and intracranial length were measured. Entry angle of electrode to bone was calculated using stereotactic coordinates. A stepwise linear regression model was used to test for variables that significantly influenced placement error.

RESULTS

Between 8 and 17 electrodes (median 10 electrodes) were placed per patient. Median target point localization error was 4.5 mm (interquartile range [IQR] 2.8–6.1 mm) for ON and 1.07 mm (IQR 0.71–1.59) for RA placement. Median entry point localization error was 5.5 mm (IQR 4.0–6.4) for ON and 0.71 mm (IQR 0.47–1.03) for RA placement. The difference in accuracy between Stealth-guided (ON) and RA placement was highly significant for both cortical entry point and target (p < 0.0001 for both). Increased soft-tissue thickness and intracranial length reduced accuracy at the target. Increased soft-tissue thickness, bone thickness, and younger age reduced accuracy at entry. There were no complications.

CONCLUSIONS

RA stereotactic electrode placement is highly accurate and is significantly more accurate than ON. Larger safety margins away from vascular structures should be used when placing deep electrodes in young children and for trajectories that pass through thicker soft tissues such as the temporal region.

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Neetu Kumar, Chinky Chatur, Ankit Balani, May Bisharat, Zubair Tahir, Navroop Johal, Sniya Sudhakar, Peter Cuckow, Dominic N. P. Thompson, and Kshitij Mankad

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and spectrum of spinal dysraphism in a cohort of children with cloacal exstrophy (CEX) using MRI.

METHODS

Children with CEX presenting between 1999 and 2019 with baseline spinal MRI were included. The images were reviewed in consensus to assess the type of dysraphism. The dysraphisms were initially reviewed and described based on their descriptive anatomy, and then classified according to anomalies of gastrulation, primary neurulation, or secondary neurulation.

RESULTS

Thirty-four children were included. Thirty-three of these children had closed spinal dysraphism, and 1 had a normal spine. Of the 33 cases of closed spinal dysraphism, the conus and/or filum terminale were involved in all cases. The most common malformations were spinal lipoma (n = 20) and terminal myelocystocele (n = 11). The lipomas were heterogeneous: 4 dorsal, 9 transitional, 4 chaotic, and 3 terminal. A large subgroup (10/20, 50%) within the lipomas had an unusual morphology of noncontiguous double lipomas, the proximal fat related to the conus and the distal fat within the filum. These were difficult to characterize using existing classifications. In 2 cases, only a thickened filum was noted. The majority of these malformations were compatible with a disorder of secondary neurulation.

CONCLUSIONS

Complex spinal dysraphisms are consistently associated with CEX. The unusual dysraphism patterns found in this group of patients highlight the limitations of current embryological classifications. Given the propensity for neurological deterioration in this group of patients, spinal MRI should be routinely performed. The type and distribution of malformations seen have implications for the wider understanding of the pathogenesis and classification of lumbosacral lipomas.