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Kai Gong, Zhe Wang, and Zhuojing Luo

Object

In situ transsacral fusion in the treatment of low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis has rarely been reported. The authors treated 13 cases of L-5 Grade 2 isthmic spondylolisthesis associated with collapsed disc space and osteoporosis by using transsacral fusion and fixation, and compared its clinical and radiological outcomes with the results of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) and instrumental reduction in 21 patients.

Methods

The authors retrospectively analyzed 21 patients in Group A who were treated with reduction and TLIF, and 13 patients in Group B who were treated with transsacral cage fusion. Oswestry Disability Index and visual analog scale scores of back and leg pain were used to evaluate clinical outcomes. Radiological parameters for assessment included the percentage of slippage, whole lumbar lordosis, and lumbosacral angle. Operative data, fusion rate, and perioperative complications were recorded as well.

Results

The mean operation time and blood loss in Group B was less than that in Group A. Both groups realized good recovery from previous symptoms. The decrease in back and leg pain after surgery was significant within each group, without much difference between the 2 groups. No significant differences were found in lumbosacral angle, whole lumbar lordosis, visual analog scale score, and Oswestry Disability Index score between the 2 groups after surgery. The solid fusion rate was 95.2% in Group A and 92.3% in Group B. In Group A, 2 patients suffered from graft site pain, 1 had a superficial infection, and 1 had screw loosening; in Group B, dural tears were found in 2 patients, transient S-1 paresthesia in 2, and extensor hallucis longus muscle weakness in 1.

Conclusions

For patients with a collapsed disc space and poor bone quality, posterior in situ transsacral cage fusion may be used as an alternative to the TLIF procedure. The short-term clinical and radiological outcomes in the transsacral cage group were comparable with those in the TLIF group, although with a relatively higher neurological complication rate.

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Zhe Wang, Liu Yang, Petar M. Djurić, and Michael R. Egnor

OBJECTIVE

Pseudotumor cerebri is a disorder of intracranial dynamics characterized by elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) and chronic cerebral venous hypertension without structural abnormalities. A perplexing feature of pseudotumor is the absence of the ventriculomegaly found in obstructive hydrocephalus, although both diseases are associated with increased resistance to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) resorption. Traditionally, the pathophysiology of ventricular dilation and obstructive hydrocephalus has been attributed to the backup of CSF due to impaired absorption, and it is unclear why backup of CSF with resulting ventriculomegaly would not occur in pseudotumor. In this study, the authors used an electrical circuit model to simulate the cerebral windkessel effect and explain the presence of ventriculomegaly in obstructive hydrocephalus but not in pseudotumor cerebri.

METHODS

The cerebral windkessel is a band-stop filter that dampens the arterial blood pressure pulse in the cranium. The authors used a tank circuit with parallel inductance and capacitance to model the windkessel. The authors distinguished the smooth flow of blood and CSF and the pulsatile flow of blood and CSF by using direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC) sources, respectively. The authors measured the dampening notch from ABP to ICP as the band-stop filter of the windkessel.

RESULTS

In obstructive hydrocephalus, loss of CSF pathway volume impaired the flow of AC power in the cranium and caused windkessel impairment, to which ventriculomegaly is an adaptation. In pseudotumor, venous hypertension affected DC power flow in the capillaries but did not affect AC power or the windkessel, therefore obviating the need for adaptive ventriculomegaly.

CONCLUSIONS

In pseudotumor, the CSF spaces are unaffected and the windkessel remains effective. Therefore, ventricles remain normal in size. In hydrocephalus, the windkessel, which depends on the flow of AC power in patent CSF spaces, is impaired, and the ventricles dilate as an adaptive process to restore CSF pathway volume. The windkessel model explains both ventriculomegaly in obstructive hydrocephalus and the lack of ventriculomegaly in pseudotumor. This model provides a novel understanding of the pathophysiology of disorders of CSF dynamics and has significant implications in clinical management.

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Haihui Jiang, Zhe Zhang, Xiaohui Ren, Wei Zeng, Junmei Wang, and Song Lin

OBJECTIVE

1p/19q co-deletion is a well-established tumor cell–specific chromosomal abnormality in oligodendroglial tumors. The endothelial cells (ECs) of oligodendroglial tumor vessels are considered to be normal cells that do not acquire mutations.

METHODS

A total of 30 samples from 16 male and 14 female patients (median age of 46.5 years) with a histological diagnosis of primary anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO) were collected in the study. The immunofluorescence technique was used to identify vascular ECs, and the 1p/19q status was detected with fluorescence in situ hybridization. Kaplan-Meier plots were compared using the log-rank method.

RESULTS

The ECs in AO had a higher 1p36 (detected signal) deletion rate than 1q25 (reference signal) (p < 0.01) and a higher 19q13 (detected signal) deletion rate than 19p13 (reference signal) (p < 0.01). The survival analysis results showed that both the progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of the patients with 1p/19q–co-deleted ECs were significantly longer than those with 1p/19q-intact ECs (PFS, p < 0.001; OS, p < 0.001). This correlation was validated by an independent cohort. In addition, the Cox regression model revealed that 1p/19q co-deletion in ECs was an independent prognostic factor (HR 0.056 [95% CI 0.012–0.261], p < 0.001 for PFS; HR 0.061 [95% CI 0.013–0.280], p < 0.01 for OS).

CONCLUSIONS

1p/19q co-deletion and polysomy can be also found in the ECs of AO, which suggests that the ECs are, in part, tumor related and reflect a novel aspect of tumor angiogenesis.

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Fu-Lin He, Shuai Qiu, Jian-Long Zou, Fan-Bin Gu, Zhi Yao, Zhe-Hui Tu, Yuan-Yuan Wang, Xiao-Lin Liu, Li-Hua Zhou, and Qing-Tang Zhu

OBJECTIVE

Neuropathic pain caused by traumatic neuromas is an extremely intractable clinical problem. Disorderly scar tissue accumulation and irregular and immature axon regeneration around the injury site mainly contribute to traumatic painful neuroma formation. Therefore, successfully preventing traumatic painful neuroma formation requires the effective inhibition of irregular axon regeneration and disorderly accumulation of scar tissue. Considering that chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) can act on the growth cone and effectively inhibit axon regeneration, the authors designed and manufactured a CSPG-gelatin blocker to regulate the CSPGs’ spatial distribution artificially and applied it in a rat model after sciatic nerve neurectomy to evaluate its effects in preventing traumatic painful neuroma formation.

METHODS

Sixty female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups (positive group: no covering; blank group: covering with gelatin blocker; and CSPG group: covering with the CSPG-gelatin blocker). Pain-related factors were evaluated 2 and 8 weeks postoperatively (n = 30). Neuroma growth, autotomy behavior, and histological features of the neuromas were assessed 8 weeks postoperatively (n = 30).

RESULTS

Eight weeks postoperatively, typical bulb-shaped neuromas did not form in the CSPG group, and autotomy behavior was obviously better in the CSPG group (p < 0.01) than in the other two groups. Also, in the CSPG group the regenerated axons showed a lower density and more regular and improved myelination (p < 0.01). Additionally, the distribution and density of collagenous fibers and the expression of α–smooth muscle actin were significantly lower in the CSPG group than in the positive group (p < 0.01). Regarding pain-related factors, c-fos, substance P, interleukin (IL)–17, and IL-1β levels were significantly lower in the CSPG group than those in the positive and blank groups 2 weeks postoperatively (p < 0.05), while substance P and IL-17 remained lower in the CSPG group 8 weeks postoperatively (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

The authors found that CSPGs loaded in a gelatin blocker can prevent traumatic neuroma formation and effectively relieve pain symptoms after sciatic nerve neurotomy by blocking irregular axon regeneration and disorderly collagenous fiber accumulation in the proximal nerve stump. These results indicate that covering the proximal nerve stump with CSPGs may be a new and promising strategy to prevent traumatic painful neuroma formation in the clinical setting.

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Zhikai Hou, Long Yan, Zhe Zhang, Jing Jing, Jinhao Lyu, Ferdinand K. Hui, Weilun Fu, Ying Yu, Rongrong Cui, Min Wan, Jia Song, Yongjun Wang, Zhongrong Miao, Xin Lou, and Ning Ma

OBJECTIVE

On the basis of the characteristics of occluded segments on high-resolution magnetic resonance vessel wall imaging (MR-VWI), the authors evaluated the role of high-resolution MR-VWI–guided endovascular recanalization for patients with symptomatic nonacute intracranial artery occlusion (ICAO).

METHODS

Consecutive patients with symptomatic nonacute ICAO that was refractory to aggressive medical treatment were prospectively enrolled and underwent endovascular recanalization. High-resolution MR-VWI was performed before the recanalization intervention. The characteristics of the occluded segments on MR-VWI, including signal intensity, occlusion morphology, occlusion angle, and occlusion length, were evaluated. Technical success was defined as arterial recanalization with modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction grade 2b or 3 and residual stenosis < 50%. Perioperative complications were recorded. The characteristics of the occluded segments on MR-VWI were compared between the recanalized group and the failure group.

RESULTS

Twenty-five patients with symptomatic nonacute ICAO that was refractory to aggressive medical treatment were consecutively enrolled from April 2020 to February 2021. Technical success was achieved in 19 patients (76.0%). One patient (4.0%) had a nondisabling ischemic stroke during the perioperative period. Multivariable logistic analysis showed that successful recanalization of nonacute ICAO was associated with occlusion with residual lumen (OR 0.057, 95% CI 0.004–0.735, p = 0.028) and shorter occlusion length (OR 0.853, 95% CI 0.737–0.989, p = 0.035).

CONCLUSIONS

The high-resolution MR-VWI modality could be used to guide endovascular recanalization for nonacute ICAO. Occlusion with residual lumen and shorter occlusion length on high-resolution MR-VWI were identified as predictors of technical success of endovascular recanalization for nonacute ICAO.