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Yosef Ellenbogen, Karanbir Brar, Kaiyun Yang, Yung Lee and Olufemi Ajani

OBJECTIVE

Pediatric hydrocephalus is a significant contributor to infant morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries. The mainstay of treatment has long been shunt placement for CSF diversion, but recent years have seen the rise of alternative procedures such as endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV), which provides similar efficacy in selected patients. The addition of choroid plexus cauterization (CPC) to ETV has been proposed to increase efficacy, but the evidence of its utility is limited. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of ETV+CPC in comparison to ETV alone for the treatment of pediatric all-cause hydrocephalus.

METHODS

MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL, ClinicalTrials.gov, and ICRCTN databases were searched from conception through to October 2018 for comparative studies including both ETV+CPC and ETV in a pediatric population. The primary outcome was success rate, defined as no secondary procedure required for CSF diversion; secondary outcomes included time to failure, mortality, and complications. Data were pooled using random-effects models of meta-analysis, and relative risk (RR) was calculated.

RESULTS

Five studies were included for final qualitative and quantitative analysis, including 2 prospective and 3 retrospective studies representing a total of 963 patients. Overall, there was no significant difference in success rates between ETV and ETV+CPC (RR 1.24, 95% CI 0.88–1.75, p = 0.21). However, a subgroup analysis including the 4 studies focusing on African cohorts demonstrated a significant benefit of ETV+CPC (RR 1.38, 95% CI 1.08–1.78, p = 0.01). There were no notable differences in complication rates among studies.

CONCLUSIONS

This systematic review and meta-analysis failed to find an overall benefit to the addition of CPC to ETV; however, a subgroup analysis showed efficacy in sub-Saharan African populations. This points to the need for future randomized clinical trials investigating the efficacy of ETV+CPC versus ETV in varied patient populations and geographic locales.

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Yung Ki Park, Kijeong Lee, Byung Ju Jung, Jaseong Koo, Bum-Soo Kim, Yong Sam Shin and Jai Ho Choi

OBJECTIVE

Visual deterioration is one of the disabling complications that can occur after carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for newly developed visual symptoms after CAS, focusing on ophthalmic artery (OA) flow pattern and etiology of visual loss.

METHODS

A retrospective review of 127 patients with 138 internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis lesions that were treated with CAS from February 2009 to October 2017 in a single institution was performed. The flow pattern of the OA was evaluated with digital subtraction angiography and classified into 3 types: type I, antegrade OA flow before and after CAS; type II, antegrade OA flow reversal after CAS; and type III, retained nonantegrade OA flow after CAS.

RESULTS

The degree of ipsilateral ICA stenosis was significantly higher in the nonantegrade group than that in the antegrade group (81.73% ± 9.87% vs 75.74% ± 10.27%, p = 0.001). Independent risk factors for newly developed visual symptoms after CAS were visual symptoms before CAS (OR 65.29, 95% CI 5.14–827.2; p = 0.001) and type III OA flow pattern (OR 55.98, 95% CI 2.88–1088.0; p = 0.008). The post-CAS visual symptoms in 10 patients were related to acute elevation of intraocular pressure in 6 patients and retinal artery occlusion in 3 patients.

CONCLUSIONS

Maintained retrograde or undetected OA flow after CAS and initial visual symptoms before CAS were related to post-CAS visual symptoms. Thus, careful attention is needed for these patients during the perioperative period, and immediate evaluation and management are required for patients with post-CAS visual loss.

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Ching-Chang Chen, Peng-Wei Hsu, Shih-Tseng Lee, Chen-Nen Chang, Kuo-Chen Wei, Chieh-Tsai Wu, Yung-Hsin Hsu, Tzu-Kang Lin, Sai-Cheung Lee and Yin-Cheng Huang

Object

Liver cirrhosis was identified as an independent predictor of poor outcomes in patients suffering trauma and in those undergoing major surgeries. The aim of this study was to report the authors' experiences treating patients with cirrhosis who undergo brain surgeries.

Methods

Between 2004 and 2009, 121 consecutive patients with cirrhosis underwent 144 brain procedures. Patients were categorized as Child-Turcotte-Pugh (referred to as “Child”) Class A, B, or C. The patient profiles, including the severity of cirrhosis, reason for surgery, complications, and prognosis factors, were analyzed.

Results

In this retrospective study, the overall surgical complication rate for patients with cirrhosis was 52.1% and the mortality rate was 24.3%. For patients with acute traumatic brain injury (TBI), the complication, rebleeding, and mortality rates reached 84.4%, 68.8%, and 37.5%, respectively. Surgery for TBI was a significant risk factor for postoperative complications (p = 0.0002) and postoperative hemorrhage (p < 0.0001). Otherwise, according to the Child classification, the complication rate increased in a stepwise fashion from 38.7% to 60% to 84.2%, the rebleeding rate from 29.3% to 48.0% to 63.2%, and the mortality rate from 5.3% to 38% to 63.2% for Child A, B, and C, respectively. The Child classification was associated with higher risk of complications—Child B vs A OR 2.84 (95% CI 1.28–6.29), Child C vs A OR 5.39 (95% CI 1.32–22.02). It was also associated with risk of death—Child C vs A OR 30.43 (95% CI 7.71–120.02), Child B vs A OR 10.88 (95% CI 3.42–34.63).

Conclusions

Liver cirrhosis is a poor comorbidity factor for brain surgery. The authors' results suggest that the Child classification used independently is a poor prognostic factor; in addition, grave outcomes were observed in patients with TBI.

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Cheng-Chia Lee, Sanford P. C. Hsu, Chung-Jung Lin, Hsiu-Mei Wu, Yu-Wei Chen, Yung-Hung Luo, Chi-Lu Chiang, Yong-Sin Hu, Wen-Yuh Chung, Cheng-Ying Shiau, Wan-Yuo Guo, David Hung-Chi Pan and Huai-Che Yang

OBJECTIVE

The presence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been associated with elevated radiosensitivity in vitro. However, results from clinical studies on radiosensitivity in cases of NSCLC with EGFR mutations are inconclusive. This paper presents a retrospective analysis of patients with NSCLC who underwent regular follow-up imaging after radiotherapy for brain metastases (BMs). The authors also investigated the influence of EGFR mutations on the efficacy of Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS).

METHODS

This study included 264 patients (1069 BMs) who underwent GKRS treatment and for whom EGFR mutation status, demographics, performance status, and tumor characteristics were available. Radiological images were obtained at 3 months after GKRS and at 3-month intervals thereafter. Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox regression analysis were used to correlate EGFR mutation status and other clinical features with tumor control and overall survival.

RESULTS

The tumor control rates and overall 12-month survival rates were 87.8% and 65.5%, respectively. Tumor control rates in the EGFR mutant group versus the EGFR wild-type group were 90.5% versus 79.4% at 12 months and 75.0% versus 24.5% at 24 months. During the 2-year follow-up period after SRS, the intracranial response rate in the EGFR mutant group was approximately 3-fold higher than that in the wild-type group (p < 0.001). Cox regression multivariate analysis identified EGFR mutation status, extracranial metastasis, primary tumor control, and prescribed margin dose as predictors of tumor control (p = 0.004, p < 0.001, p = 0.004, and p = 0.026, respectively). Treatment with a combination of GKRS and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) was the most important predictor of overall survival (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

The current study demonstrated that, among patients with NSCLC-BMs, EGFR mutations were independent prognostic factors of tumor control. It was also determined that a combination of GKRS and TKI had the most pronounced effect on prolonging survival after SRS. In select patient groups, treatment with SRS in conjunction with EGFR-TKIs provided effective tumor control for NSCLC-BMs.