Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 9 of 9 items for

  • Author or Editor: Yuanli Zhao x
  • Refine by Access: all x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

Yahui Zhao, Jiaxi Li, Junlin Lu, Qian Zhang, Dong Zhang, Rong Wang, Yuanli Zhao, and Xiaolin Chen

OBJECTIVE

The effect of indirect revascularization to improve cerebral perfusion for moyamoya disease (MMD) is based on ingrowth of new vessels into the cortical brain. Preoperative indicators for neoangiogenesis would be helpful to the selection of appropriate procedures for MMD patients but have not yet been investigated. Our study aimed to identify potential predictors for neovascularization after indirect bypass surgery.

METHODS

The authors reviewed consecutive cases with complete clinical and radiological documentation of patients who had undergone surgery between December 2010 and January 2018. Patients who were treated with indirect bypass surgery were included. Cerebrovascular characteristics were evaluated by catheter angiography. Neoangiogenesis after indirect bypass was determined as “good” or “poor” based on the Matsushima standard. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictors for neoangiogenesis after indirect bypass. Subgroup analyses by onset type and surgical type were carried out to identify specific predictors for different populations.

RESULTS

In total, 231 hemispheres of 209 patients (mean ± SD age 23.06 ± 15.09 years, range 3–61 years) were retrospectively included. In 146 (63.2%) hemispheres, good neoangiogenesis was observed after indirect revascularization. Multivariate analysis showed that the status of ICA moyamoya vessels (p < 0.001, OR [95% CI] 3.242 [2.007–5.236]) is a predictor of favorable neoangiogenesis after indirect bypass surgery, whereas hemorrhagic onset (p < 0.001, OR [95% CI] 0.138 [0.054–0.353]) is a risk factor for poor neoangiogenesis. In addition, younger age was significantly associated with good neovascularization in patients with hemorrhagic onset (p = 0.027, OR [95% CI] 0.893 [0.808–0.987]), whereas age was not a significant predictor for neovascularization in non–hemorrhagic-onset patients (p = 0.955). Hemispheres with good revascularization had lower incidence of rebleeding, lower modified Rankin Scale scores, and more improvement of symptoms during long-term follow-up (p = 0.026, 0.006, and 0.013, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS

Hemorrhagic onset predicts poor neovascularization after indirect bypass surgery for MMD patients. Abundant ICA moyamoya vessels indicate good neoangiogenesis after indirect bypass and vice versa, whereas absent ICA moyamoya vessels predict poor revascularization. Good neovascularization was associated with better long-term outcome. Future studies are needed to further address this issue and clarify the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms.

Full access

Xing-ju Liu, Dong Zhang, Shuo Wang, Yuan-li Zhao, Mario Teo, Rong Wang, Yong Cao, Xun Ye, Shuai Kang, and Ji-Zong Zhao

OBJECT

The aim of this study was to describe the baseline clinical features and long-term outcomes of patients with moyamoya disease (MMD) based on a 25-year period at a single center in China.

METHODS

 Data obtained in 528 consecutive patients with MMD treated at the authors' hospital from 1984 to 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Events of transient ischemic attack, new infarction, and hemorrhage were included. The Kaplan-Meier risk of stroke was calculated.

RESULTS

 The mean (± SD) patient age was 26 ± 13 years (range 2–67 years), and the female/male ratio was 0.9:1. There were 332 cases of ischemia and 196 hemorrhages. Adults had a higher rate of bleeding than children (50.7% vs 14.0%, respectively; p < 0.001). One hundred twenty-two patients were treated conservatively, and 406 patients underwent revascularization procedures. Of 528 patients, 331 (62.7%) had at least 1 year of follow-up (median 39.5 months) and data from these patients were analyzed. Rebleeding and mortality rates in patients with hemorrhagic MMD (n = 104) were higher than in those with ischemic MMD (n = 227) (26.9% vs 2.2% [p < 0.001] and 4.8% vs 0.4% [p < 0.05], respectively). Twenty-five of 60 (41.7%) conservatively treated patients and 8 of 271 (2.9%) surgically treated patients experienced rebleeding events, a difference that was significant in the Kaplan-Meier curve of rebleeding (p < 0.01). An improvement in perfusion was found in 164 of 224 (73.2%) surgically treated patients 1 month after discharge. However, there was no significant difference in the rate of ischemic events in the surgical and conservative groups (18.8% and 28.3%, respectively; p = 0.09). Among the 104 hemorrhagic cases, rebleeding attacks were observed in 25 patients in the nonsurgical group (n = 60) and 3 patients in the surgical group (n = 44) (41.7% and 6.8%, respectively; OR 9.7 [95% CI 2.7–35.0]; p < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

 There was no difference in the sex distribution of Chinese patients with MMD. Patients with hemorrhagic MMD had a much higher rate of rebleeding and poorer prognosis than those with the ischemic type. Surgical revascularization procedures can improve cerebral perfusion and have a positive impact in preventing rebleeding in patients with hemorrhagic MMD.

Free access

Nan Li, Debin Yan, Zhipeng Li, Yu Chen, Li Ma, Ruinan Li, Heze Han, Xiangyu Meng, Hengwei Jin, Yang Zhao, Xiaolin Chen, Hao Wang, and Yuanli Zhao

OBJECTIVE

This study aimed to explore whether intervention can benefit Spetzler-Martin (SM) grade IV–V arteriovenous malformations (AVMs).

METHODS

Eighty-two patients with SM grade IV–V AVMs were retrospectively reviewed from 2015 to 2018. Patients were divided into two groups: those who received conservative management (22 cases [26.8%]) and intervention (60 cases [73.2%], including 21 cases of microsurgery, 19 embolization, and 20 hybrid surgery). Neurofunctional outcomes were assessed with the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). The primary outcome was long-term neurofunctional status, and the secondary outcomes were short-term neurofunctional status, long-term obliteration rate, seizure control, and risk of subsequent hemorrhage.

RESULTS

Regarding the primary outcome, after an average of 4.7 years of clinical follow-up, long-term neurofunctional outcomes were similar after conservative management or intervention (absolute difference −0.4 [95% CI −1.5 to 0.7], OR 0.709 [95% CI 0.461–1.090], p = 0.106), whereas intervention had an advantage over conservative management for avoidance of severe disability (defined as mRS score > 3) (1.7% vs 18.2%, absolute difference 16.5% [95% CI −23.6% to 56.6%], OR 0.076 [95% CI 0.008–0.727], p = 0.025). Regarding the secondary outcomes, intervention was conducive to better seizure control (Engel class I–II) (70.0% vs 0.0%, absolute difference 70.0% [95% CI 8.6%–131.4%], p = 0.010) and avoidance of subsequent hemorrhage (1.4% vs 6.0%, absolute difference 4.6% [95% CI −0.4% to 9.6%], p = 0.030). In the subgroup analysis based on different intervention modalities, microsurgery and hybrid surgery achieved higher complete obliteration rates than embolization (p < 0.001), and hybrid surgery resulted in significantly less intraoperative blood loss than microsurgery (p = 0.041).

CONCLUSIONS

Intervention is reasonable for properly indicated SM grade IV–V AVMs because it provides satisfactory seizure control with decreased risks of severe disability and subsequent hemorrhage than conservative management.

Clinical trial registration no.: NCT04572568 (ClinicalTrials.gov)

Full access

Xiaofeng Deng, Faliang Gao, Dong Zhang, Yan Zhang, Rong Wang, Shuo Wang, Yong Cao, Yuanli Zhao, Yuesong Pan, Xingju Liu, Qian Zhang, and Jizong Zhao

OBJECTIVE

The optimal surgical modality for moyamoya disease (MMD) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to compare the surgical effects of direct bypass (DB) and indirect bypass (IB) in the treatment of adult ischemic-type MMD.

METHODS

Adult patients with ischemic-type MMD who underwent either DB or IB from 2009 to 2015 were identified retrospectively from a prospective database. Patients lost to follow-up or with a follow-up period less than 12 months were excluded. Recurrent stroke events and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores at the last follow-up were compared between the 2 surgical groups after 1:1 propensity score matching.

RESULTS

A total of 220 patients were considered, including 143 patients who underwent DB and 77 patients who underwent IB. After propensity score matching, 70 pairs were obtained. The median follow-up period was 40.5 months (range 14–75 months) in the DB group and 31.5 months (range 14–71 months) in the IB group (p = 0.004). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients who received DB had a longer stroke-free time (mean 72.1 months) compared with patients who received IB (mean 61.0 months) (p = 0.045). Good neurological status (mRS score ≤ 2) was achieved in 64 patients in the DB group (91.4%) and 66 patients in the IB group (94.3%), but there was no significant difference (p = 0.512).

CONCLUSIONS

Although neurological function outcome was not determined by the surgical modality, DB is more effective in preventing recurrent ischemic strokes than IB for adult ischemic-type MMD.

Full access

Xiaofeng Deng, Faliang Gao, Dong Zhang, Yan Zhang, Rong Wang, Shuo Wang, Yong Cao, Yuanli Zhao, Yuesong Pan, Xun Ye, Xingju Liu, Qian Zhang, Jia Wang, Ziwen Yang, Meng Zhao, and Jizong Zhao

OBJECTIVE

Bypass surgery is the most common treatment for moyamoya disease (MMD), but there is controversy over which surgical modality is best. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of patients with MMD after undergoing different surgical modalities.

METHODS

A series of 696 consecutive MMD patients treated between June 2009 and May 2015 were screened in this prospective cohort study. Patients who did not undergo revascularization surgeries and those who underwent different surgical modalities in bilateral hemispheres were excluded. Finally, 529 patients who were observed for at least 12 months were included: 438 patients underwent unilateral surgery, and 91 patients underwent bilateral surgery. Of these, 241 patients underwent direct bypass (DB); 81, a combined bypass (CB); and 207, an indirect bypass (IB). Three clinical outcomes were evaluated and compared between surgical groups: recurrent stroke events, modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores, and change in the main symptoms.

RESULTS

The mean follow-up period was 40 months. During the follow-up period, recurrent stroke was observed in 43 patients, including 15 patients with hemorrhage, 26 patients with ischemia (transient ischemic attack in 19 patients and infarction in 7 patients), and 2 patients with both hemorrhage and cerebral infarction. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients who underwent a CB or DB had a longer ischemia-free time than those who underwent IB (p = 0.013); however, there was no significant difference in the hemorrhage-free time between the different surgical modalities (p = 0.534). A good neurological status (mRS score ≤ 2) was achieved in 495 patients (93.6%) and was significantly achieved by more children (98.2%) than adults (92.3%; p = 0.022). Surgical modalities were not significantly associated with outcome neurological status (p = 0.860). Moreover, improvement in symptoms was observed in 449 patients (84.9%) and was also significantly more common in children (93.0%) than in adults (82.7%; p = 0.006). No significant difference was observed between the different surgical modalities (p = 0.548).

CONCLUSIONS

CB and DB are more effective at preventing recurrent ischemic strokes than IB. However, there is no evidence that these 3 surgical modalities demonstrate significant differences in preventing recurrent hemorrhage.

Restricted access

Zongze Li, Junlin Lu, Li Ma, Chunxue Wu, Zongsheng Xu, Xiaolin Chen, Xun Ye, Rong Wang, and Yuanli Zhao

OBJECTIVE

Postoperative neurological deficits impair the overall outcome of revascularization surgery for patients with moyamoya disease (MMD). dl-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) is approved for the treatment of ischemic stroke in China. This pilot study evaluated the effect of NBP on perioperative stroke and neurological deficits in patients with MMD.

METHODS

The authors studied cases in which patients underwent combined revascularization surgery for MMD at their institution, with or without NBP administration. The overall study group included 164 patients (213 surgically treated hemispheres), including 49 patients who received NBP (25 mg twice daily) for 7 postoperative days. The incidence of perioperative stroke and transient neurological deficit (TND) and the severity of neurological deficits were compared between 49 propensity score–matched case pairs with or without NBP treatment. Subgroup analyses by type of onset and preoperative neurological status were also performed to determine specific characteristics of patients who might benefit from NBP administration.

RESULTS

In the overall cohort, baseline characteristics differed with respect to preoperative stroke and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score between patients who received NBP and those who did not receive it. In the 49 propensity score–matched pairs, postoperative stroke was observed in 11 patients and TND occurred in 21 patients, with no significant difference in incidence between the 2 groups. However, the TND was less severe in the NBP-treated group (p = 0.01). At 1 month after surgery, the neurological outcome was more favorable (p = 0.001) and the disability-free recovery rate was higher in patients with NBP treatment (p < 0.001). The number of patients who experienced an improved neurological function, compared to preoperative function, as measured by mRS, was greater in the NBP group than in the no-NBP group (p < 0.001). Multivariable analysis revealed that NBP administration was associated with decreased severity of TND (OR 0.28, p = 0.02), improved neurological function (OR 65.29, p = 0.04), and lower postoperative mRS score (OR 0.06, p < 0.001). These beneficial effects of NBP remained significant in ischemic type MMD and patients with preoperative mRS scores of 2 or greater.

CONCLUSIONS

Postoperative administration of NBP may alleviate perioperative neurological deficits after revascularization surgery for MMD, especially in patients with ischemic MMD and unfavorable preoperative status. The results of this study suggest that randomized controlled trials to assess the potential benefit of NBP in patients with MMD may be warranted.

Restricted access

Yu Chen, Li Ma, Junlin Lu, Xiaolin Chen, Xun Ye, Dong Zhang, Yan Zhang, Rong Wang, and Yuanli Zhao

OBJECTIVE

Postoperative hemorrhage during the acute phase is rarely observed after revascularization surgery for moyamoya disease (MMD) but can have severe complications. Its risk factors and outcomes are still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictors of postoperative hemorrhage during the acute phase in MMD and examine the outcomes of the hemorrhage.

METHODS

The authors reviewed the preoperative clinical characteristics and radiographic features of 465 consecutive MMD cases (518 procedures) that had undergone direct or combined bypass surgery at their institution between 2009 and 2015. Patients with postoperative intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) or ICH plus intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) during the acute phase were screened, and then the incidence, location, and risk factors of hemorrhage in these patients were analyzed. Short-term and long-term outcomes (modified Rankin Scale scores) for these patients were also collected. Outcomes were compared between patients with and those without postoperative ICH using propensity score analysis to reduce the between-group differences in baseline characteristics.

RESULTS

Postoperative hemorrhage occurred in 11 (2.1%; ICH = 9, IVH = 2) of 518 procedures (mean patient age 39.82 ± 8.8 years). Hemorrhage occurred in the first 24 hours after the operation in 8 cases (72.7%). In the ICH group, most of the hemorrhage sites (77.8%) were located beneath the anastomosed area, and the mean hematoma volume was 16.98 ± 22.45 ml (range 3–57 ml). One case from the ICH group required hematoma evacuation. Among the adult patients (463 procedures [89.4%]), preoperative hypertension (p = 0.008), CT perfusion (CTP) stage > III (p = 0.013), and posterior circulation involvement (p = 0.022) were significantly associated with postoperative ICH. No significant differences between the postoperative ICH group and the no-hemorrhage group were detected in terms of postoperative neurofunctional status at discharge (p = 0.569) or at the last follow-up (p = 1.000). Neither was there a significant difference in future stroke risk (p = 0.538) between these two groups.

CONCLUSIONS

Preoperative hypertension, CTP stage > III, and posterior circulation involvement are independent risk factors for postoperative ICH after direct or combined revascularization for MMD. After appropriate perioperative management, postoperative ICH has no significant correlations with the postoperative short-term and long-term neurofunctional status.

Restricted access

Yu Chen, Pingting Chen, Ruinan Li, Heze Han, Zhipeng Li, Li Ma, Debin Yan, Haibin Zhang, Fa Lin, Runting Li, Xiangyu Meng, Hengwei Jin, Youxiang Li, Xun Ye, Shuai Kang, Hao Wang, Xiaolin Chen, and Yuanli Zhao

OBJECTIVE

The hemodynamics of a brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) nidus may be closely related to clinical presentation. The authors of this study aimed to explore the hemorrhagic quantitative hemodynamic indicators of the nidus through quantitative digital subtraction angiography (QDSA).

METHODS

The quantitative hemodynamic parameters were generated from QDSA. Three data sets were used to explore independent quantitative hemodynamic indicators associated with AVM rupture. The training data set was exploited to discover independent quantitative hemodynamic indicators of AVM rupture by performing univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. The authors plotted receiver operating characteristic curves to validate the diagnostic performance of the hemorrhagic hemodynamic indicators using the training and two external validation data sets. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was adopted to verify the predictive power of these risk indicators of future hemorrhage in the external prospective validation data set.

RESULTS

A total of 151 patients were included in this study, 91 in the training set and 30 in each of the two validation sets. A higher stasis index and slower transnidal relative velocity (TRV) of the nidus were significantly correlated with AVM rupture. The areas under the curve (AUCs) of the stasis index (nidus) were 0.765 and 0.815 and those of the TRV (nidus) were 0.735 and 0.796, respectively, in the training and retrospective external validation sets. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis confirmed the validity of the stasis index and TRV in predicting future rupture risk in the prospective validation data set (p = 0.008 and 0.041, respectively, log-rank test).

CONCLUSIONS

A higher stasis index (nidus) and slower TRV (nidus) in QDSA were associated with AVM rupture and were effective indicators of future hemorrhage, suggesting that the core mechanisms underlying AVM rupture could be intravascular blood stasis and occlusive hyperemia of the nidus.

Restricted access

Runting Li, Fa Lin, Yu Chen, Junlin Lu, Heze Han, Debin Yan, Ruinan Li, Jun Yang, Zhipeng Li, Haibin Zhang, Kexin Yuan, Yongchen Jin, Qiang Hao, Hongliang Li, Linlin Zhang, Guangzhi Shi, Jianxin Zhou, Yang Zhao, Yukun Zhang, Youxiang Li, Shuo Wang, Xiaolin Chen, and Yuanli Zhao

OBJECTIVE

More than 10 years have passed since the two best-known clinical trials of ruptured aneurysms (International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial [ISAT] and Barrow Ruptured Aneurysm Trial [BRAT]) indicated that endovascular coiling (EC) was superior to surgical clipping (SC). However, in recent years, the development of surgical techniques has greatly improved; thus, it is necessary to reanalyze the impact of the differences in treatment modalities on the prognosis of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH).

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed all aSAH patients admitted to their institution between January 2015 and December 2020. The functional outcomes at discharge and 90 days after discharge were assessed using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). In-hospital complications, hospital charges, and risk factors derived from multivariate logistic regression were analyzed in the SC and EC groups after 1:1 propensity score matching (PSM). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was used to calculate each independent predictor’s prediction ability between treatment groups.

RESULTS

A total of 844 aSAH patients were included. After PSM to control for sex, aneurysm location, Hunt and Hess grade, World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) grade, modified Fisher Scale grade, and current smoking and alcohol abuse status, 329 patients who underwent SC were compared with 329 patients who underwent EC. Patients who underwent SC had higher incidences of unfavorable discharge and 90-day outcomes (46.5% vs 33.1%, p < 0.001; and 19.6% vs 13.8%, p = 0.046, respectively), delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) (31.3% vs 20.1%, p = 0.001), intracranial infection (20.1% vs 1.2%, p < 0.001), anemia (42.2% vs 17.6%, p < 0.001), hypoproteinemia (46.2% vs 21.6%, p < 0.001), and pneumonia (33.4% vs 24.9%, p = 0.016); but a lower incidence of urinary tract infection (1.2% vs 5.2%, p = 0.004) and lower median hospital charges ($12,285 [IQR $10,399–$15,569] vs $23,656 [IQR $18,816–$30,025], p < 0.001). A positive correlation between the number of in-hospital complications and total hospital charges was indicated in the SC (r = 0.498, p < 0.001) and EC (r = 0.411, p < 0.001) groups. The occurrence of pneumonia and DCI, WFNS grade IV or V, and age were common independent risk factors for unfavorable outcomes at discharge and 90 days after discharge in both treatment modalities.

CONCLUSIONS

EC shows advantages in discharge and 90-day outcomes, in-hospital complications, and the number of risk factors but increases the economic cost on patients during their hospital stay. Severe in-hospital complications such as pneumonia and DCI may have a long-lasting impact on the prognosis of patients.