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Ye Tian, Wen Yuan, Huajiang Chen and Xiaolong Shen

The authors describe a case of spinal cord compression due to an osteochondroma arising from the T-6 vertebral body in a patient with hereditary multiple exostoses. This 16-year-old boy presented with spastic paraparesis. Surgical decompression was followed by resolution of the neurological impairments. Osteochondroma is the most common bone tumor. The distribution of osteochondromas greatly favors the extremities and these lesions rarely arise in the vertebral column. Osteochondromas occur in 2 distinct clinical settings—as solitary or multiple tumors, the latter being often associated with hereditary multiple exostoses. Osteochondromas are more commonly found in the posterior elements of the vertebrae. Intraspinal presentation of these tumors is usually limited to the cervical regions, with few tumors reported in the thoracic vertebrae. Based on the presented case and literature review, the authors conclude that osteochondromas of the thoracic spine that cause myelopathy usually arise from the vertebral body and pedicle. Prompt and systematic radiological investigations are important in planning surgical management. Surgical excision usually yields good results.

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Abel Po-Hao Huang, Jui-Chang Tsai, Lu-Ting Kuo, Chung-Wei Lee, Hong-Shiee Lai, Li-Kai Tsai, Sheng-Jean Huang, Chien-Min Chen, Yuan-Shen Chen, Hao-Yu Chuang and Max Wintermark

Object

Currently, perfusion CT (PCT) is a valuable imaging technique that has been successfully applied to the clinical management of patients with ischemic stroke and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, recent literature and the authors' experience have shown that PCT has many more important clinical applications in a variety of neurosurgical conditions. Therefore, the authors share their experiences of its application in various diseases of the cerebrovascular, neurotraumatology, and neurooncology fields and review the pertinent literature regarding expanding PCT applications for neurosurgical conditions, including pitfalls and future developments.

Methods

A pertinent literature search was conducted of English-language articles describing original research, case series, and case reports from 1990 to 2011 involving PCT and with relevance and applicability to neurosurgical disorders.

Results

In the cerebrovascular field, PCT is already in use as a diagnostic tool for patients suspected of having an ischemic stroke. Perfusion CT can be used to identify and define the extent of the infarct core and ischemic penumbra core, and thus aid patient selection for acute reperfusion therapy. For patients with aneurysmal SAH, PCT provides assessment of early brain injury, cerebral ischemia, and infarction, in addition to vasospasm. It may also be used to aid case selection for aggressive treatment of patients with poor SAH grade. In terms of oncological applications, PCT can be used as an imaging biomarker to assess angiogenesis and response to antiangiogenetic treatments, differentiate between glioma grades, and distinguish recurrent tumor from radiation necrosis. In the setting of traumatic brain injury, PCT can detect and delineate contusions at an early stage. In patients with mild head injury, PCT results have been shown to correlate with the severity and duration of postconcussion syndrome. In patients with moderate or severe head injury, PCT results have been shown to correlate with patients' functional outcome.

Conclusions

Perfusion CT provides quantitative and qualitative data that can add diagnostic and prognostic value in a number of neurosurgical disorders, and also help with clinical decision making. With emerging new technical developments in PCT, such as characterization of blood-brain barrier permeability and whole-brain PCT, this technique is expected to provide more and more insight into the pathophysiology of many neurosurgical conditions.