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Qiang Yuan, Xing Wu, Yirui Sun, Jian Yu, Zhiqi Li, Zhuoying Du, Ying Mao, Liangfu Zhou and Jin Hu

OBJECT

Some studies have demonstrated that intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring reduces the mortality of traumatic brain injury (TBI). But other studies have shown that ICP monitoring is associated with increased mortality. Thus, the authors performed a meta-analysis of studies comparing ICP monitoring with no ICP monitoring in patients who have suffered a TBI to determine if differences exist between these strategies with respect to mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS), and hospital LOS.

METHODS

The authors systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Central) from their inception to October 2013 for relevant studies. Randomized clinical trials and prospective cohort, retrospective observational cohort, and case-control studies that compared ICP monitoring with no ICP monitoring for the treatment of TBI were included in the analysis. Studies included had to report at least one point of mortality in an ICP monitoring group and a no–ICP monitoring group. Data were extracted for study characteristics, patient demographics, baseline characteristics, treatment details, and study outcomes.

RESULTS

A total of 14 studies including 24,792 patients were analyzed. The meta-analysis provides no evidence that ICP monitoring decreased the risk of death (pooled OR 0.93 [95% CI 0.77–1.11], p = 0.40). However, 7 of the studies including 12,944 patients were published after 2012 (January 2012 to October 2013), and they revealed that ICP monitoring was significantly associated with a greater decrease in mortality than no ICP monitoring (pooled OR 0.56 [95% CI 0.41–0.78], p = 0.0006). In addition, 7 of the studies conducted in North America showed no evidence that ICP monitoring decreased the risk of death, similar to the studies conducted in other regions. ICU LOSs were significantly longer for the group subjected to ICP monitoring (mean difference [MD] 0.29 [95% CI 0.21–0.37]; p < 0.00001). In the pooled data, the hospital LOS with ICP monitoring was also significantly longer than with no ICP monitoring (MD 0.21 [95% CI 0.04–0.37]; p = 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

In this systematic review and meta-analysis of ICP monitoring studies, the authors found that the current clinical evidence does not indicate that ICP monitoring overall is significantly superior to no ICP monitoring in terms of the mortality of TBI patients. However, studies published after 2012 indicated a lower mortality in patients who underwent ICP monitoring.

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Wei Xu, Yu Wang, Jing Wang, Xinghai Yang, Weibo Liu, Wang Zhou, Tielong Liu and Jianru Xiao

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term bisphosphonate treatment on reducing local recurrence of sacral giant cell tumors (GCTs) after nerve-sparing surgery.

METHODS

Thirty-five consecutive patients with sacral GCTs who received treatment in Shanghai Changzheng Hospital between January 2000 and December 2010 were included in this study. Between January 2007 and December 2010, 19 patients received bisphosphonates following nerve-sparing surgery. Before January 2007, 16 patients received nerve-sparing surgery alone, and these cases were included as the control group. The difference in clinical data between the groups was compared by Student's t-test and 2-tailed chi-square or Fisher's exact test. The postoperative recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and compared between the groups by log-rank test. A p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

RESULTS

All of the patients had relatively good nerve function. The clinical data were homogeneous between the groups. The local recurrence rate was 10.53% (2 of 19) in the bisphosphonate treatment group and 43.75% (7 of 16) in the control group. The log-rank test showed that the 3-year RFS and 3-year OS in the bisphosphonate treatment group were significantly higher than those in the control group (RFS 89.5% vs 56.3%, p = 0.04; OS 100% vs 81.3%, p = 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

The long-term use of bisphosphonates after nerve-sparing surgery is a viable option for the treatment of sacral GCTs. This approach could reduce local recurrences while preserving nerve function.

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He Xiao-Sheng, Yi Sheng-Yu, Zhang Xiang, Fei Zhou, Zhang Jian-Ning and Yang Li-Sun

Object. The authors investigated the ramifications of producing diffuse axonal injury (DAI) by lateral head rotation in a rat model.

Methods. Using a special injury-producing device, the rat's head was rapidly rotated 90° in the coronal plane at an angular velocity of at least 753.13 rad/second and an angular acceleration of at least 1.806 × 105 rad/second2; the rotation was complete within 2.09 msec. There were no statistically significant changes in PO2, PCO2, pH, or blood pressure values at 5, 15, or 60 minutes after head rotation compared with their respective preinjury baseline values. The rats exhibited posttraumatic behavior suppression for an average of 12.6 minutes. The mortality rate was 17%. The rats that survived had diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage around the brainstem and upper cervical cord, but no obvious brain contusion. In sections stained with silver or hematoxylin and eosin, axonal swelling and bulblike protrusions at the axonal axis were observed in the medulla oblongata, midbrain, upper cervical cord, and corpus callosum between 6 hours and 144 hours postinjury. The axonal injuries were most severe in the brainstem and were accompanied by parenchymal bleeding. The density of bulblike axonal protrusions peaked 6 hours postinjury in the medulla oblongata and 24 hours postinjury in the midbrain.

Conclusions. Rapid lateral head rotation can produce DAI characterized by severe damage to the rat brainstem.

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Da Li, Yang Yang, Shu-Yu Hao, Liang Wang, Jie Tang, Xin-Ru Xiao, Hui Zhou, Gui-Jun Jia, Zhen Wu, Li-Wei Zhang and Jun-Ting Zhang

Object

The aim of this study was to evaluate the pre- and postoperative rehemorrhage risk, neurological function outcome, and prognostic factors of surgically treated brainstem cavernous malformations (CMs) with long-term follow-up.

Methods

The authors conducted a retrospective review of the clinical data from 242 patients with brainstem CMs that were surgically treated between 1999 and 2010. Patient charts, imaging findings, and outcomes were examined.

Results

The study included 242 patients, with a male-to-female ratio of 1.3 and mean age of 32.6 years. The mean modified Rankin Scale scores on admission, at discharge, at 3 and 6 months after surgery, and at recent evaluation were 2.2, 2.6, 2.3, 1.8, and 1.5, respectively. The preoperative calculated annual hemorrhage and rehemorrhage rates were 5.0% and 60.9%, respectively. The complete resection rate was 95%. Surgical morbidity occurred in 112 patients (46.3%). Eighty-five patients (35.1%) demonstrated worsened condition immediately after surgery; 34 (41.0%) and 51 (61.4%) of these patients recovered to their baseline level within 3 and 6 months after surgery, respectively. At a mean follow-up of 89.4 months, the patients' condition had improved in 147 cases (60.7%), was unchanged in 70 cases (28.9%), and had worsened in 25 cases (10.3%). A total of 8 hemorrhages occurred in 6 patients, and the postoperative annual hemorrhage rate was 0.4%. Permanent morbidity remained in 65 patients (26.9%). The adverse factors for preoperative rehemorrhage were age ≥ 50 years, size ≥ 2 cm, and perilesional edema. The risk factors for postoperative hemorrhage were developmental venous anomaly and incomplete resection. The independent adverse factors for long-term outcome were increased age, multiple hemorrhages, ventral-seated lesions, and poor preoperative status. Favorable, complete improvement in the postoperative deficits over time was correlated with good preoperative neurological function and continuing improvement thereafter.

Conclusions

Favorable long-term outcomes and significantly low postoperative annual hemorrhage rates were achieved via surgery. Total resection should be attempted with an aim of minimal injury to neurological function; however, postoperative deficits can improve during the postoperative course. Close follow-up with radiological examination is proposed for patients with adverse factors predictive of rehemorrhage.

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Bing Zhou, Qian Huang, Ping-Hung Shen, Shun-Jiu Cui, Cheng-Shuo Wang, Yun-Chuan Li, Zhen-Kun Yu, Xiao-Hong Chen and Ting Ye

OBJECT

This study was undertaken to analyze the results of a novel surgical method—the endoscopic prelacrimal recess approach (PLRA)—in patients with tumors involving the pterygopalatine fossa (PPF) and infratemporal fossa (ITF). The surgical technique and indications for this approach are also discussed.

METHODS

The authors analyzed data from 7 cases involving patients who underwent resection of PPF and ITF tumors by means of the endoscopic PLRA from 2004 to 2013. Preoperative and postoperative imaging studies were available in all cases and were reviewed. The surgical specimens were all confirmed to be schwannomas.

RESULTS

All tumors were completely resected via endoscopic PLRA. There were no recurrences noted over a 28-month follow-up period. In 4 cases, the patients experienced postoperative facial numbness during the first two weeks after surgery, which gradually lessened thereafter. One patient continued to have mild facial numbness at most recent follow-up. The numbness had fully resolved in the other 3 cases.

CONCLUSIONS

The intranasal endoscopic removal of schwannoma from PPF and ITF via PLRA can spare the whole lateral nasal wall, resulting in a reduction in morbidity. This is a novel minimally invasive surgical method for PPF and ITF tumors.

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Qian Zhang, Yaping Liu, Dong Zhang, Rong Wang, Yan Zhang, Shuo Wang, Lanbing Yu, Chaoxia Lu, Fang Liu, Jian Zhou, Xue Zhang and Jizong Zhao

OBJECTIVE

Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a rare, genetically heterogeneous cerebrovascular disease. The authors conducted a genetic study of really interesting new gene (RING) finger protein 213 (RNF213); actin alpha 2 (ACTA2); BRCA1/BRCA2-containing complex subunit 3 (BRCC3); and guanylate cyclase 1, soluble, alpha 3 (GUCY1A3) as well as a clinical phenotype analysis in Chinese MMD patients to determine whether genetic differences are responsible for the different clinical features that appear in MMD in different ethnicities.

METHODS

A panel was designed to identify disease-causing mutations in MMD genes and those involved in related disorders (RNF213, ACTA2, BRCC3, and GUCY1A3). The panel was used to detect disease-causing mutations in 255 Chinese MMD patients. Genotype and allele frequencies were compared between patients and 300 controls. A mutation segregation analysis was performed in 34 families, and genotype-phenotype correlations were made.

RESULTS

Twenty-seven rare missense variants of RNF213 were identified and were not found in controls. Among them, p.R4810K was identified in 31.4% of patients (80 of 255) with MMD. Significantly higher frequencies of the A allele and G/A genotype of p.R4810K were observed in MMD patients compared with controls (χ2 = 104.166, p < 0.000). Twenty-five rare variants were identified in 10.6% of patients (27 of 255) without p.R4810K variants. Segregation analysis supported an association between MMD and 3 variants. No possible disease-causing mutations were identified in ACTA2, BRCC3, or GUCY1A3. Compared with patients without the rare variants in RNF213, the p.R4810K heterozygous patients were younger at diagnosis (25 vs 29 years old, p = 0.049) and had more familial cases (24% vs 4.4%, p = 0.000), ischemic cases (81.3% vs 67.5%, p = 0.037), and involvement of the posterior cerebral artery (52% vs 32.5%, p = 0.007).

CONCLUSIONS

RNF213 is the major susceptibility gene in Chinese MMD patients. The spectrum of rare variants identified in Chinese MMD patients was diverse. Compared to patients without the rare variants in RNF213, the p.R4810K heterozygous patients exhibited different clinical features.

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Wen-Dong Xu, Jiu-Zhou Lu, Yan-Qun Qiu, Su Jiang, Lei Xu, Jian-Guang Xu and Yu-Dong Gu

Object

The functional recovery of hand prehension after complete brachial plexus avulsion injury (BPAI) remains an unsolved problem. The authors conducted a prospective study to elucidate a new method of resolving this injury.

Methods

Three patients with BPAI underwent a new procedure during which the full-length phrenic nerve was transferred to the medial root of the median nerve via endoscopic thoracic surgery support. All 3 patients were followed up for a postoperative period of > 3 years.

Results

The power of the palmaris longus, flexor pollicis longus, and the flexor digitorum muscles of all 4 fingers reached Grade 3–4/5, and no symptoms of respiratory insufficiency occurred.

Conclusions

Neurotization of the phrenic nerve to the medial root of the median nerve via endoscopic thoracic surgery is a feasible means of early hand prehension recovery after complete BPAI.

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Guo-chen Sun, Xiao-lei Chen, Yuan-zheng Hou, Xin-guang Yu, Xiao-dong Ma, Gang Liu, Lei Liu, Jia-shu Zhang, Hao Tang, Ru-Yuan Zhu, Ding-Biao Zhou and Bai-nan Xu

OBJECTIVE

Endoscopic removal of intracerebral hematomas is becoming increasingly common, but there is no standard technique. The authors explored the use of a simple image-guided endoscopic method for removal of spontaneous supratentorial hematomas.

METHODS

Virtual reality technology based on a hospital picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) was used in 3D hematoma visualization and surgical planning. Augmented reality based on an Android smartphone app, Sina neurosurgical assist, allowed a projection of the hematoma to be seen on the patient's scalp to facilitate selection of the best trajectory to the center of the hematoma. A obturator and transparent sheath were used to establish a working channel, and an endoscope and a metal suction apparatus were used to remove the hematoma.

RESULTS

A total of 25 patients were included in the study, including 18 with putamen hemorrhages and 7 with lobar cerebral hemorrhages. Virtual reality combined with augmented reality helped in achieving the desired position with the obturator and sheath. The median time from the initial surgical incision to completion of closure was 50 minutes (range 40–70 minutes). The actual endoscopic operating time was 30 (range 15–50) minutes. The median blood loss was 80 (range 40–150) ml. No patient experienced postoperative rebleeding. The average hematoma evacuation rate was 97%. The mean (± SD) preoperative Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score was 6.7 ± 3.2; 1 week after hematoma evacuation the mean GCS score had improved to 11.9 ± 3.1 (p < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

Virtual reality using hospital PACS and augmented reality with a smartphone app helped precisely localize hematomas and plan the appropriate endoscopic approach. A transparent sheath helped establish a surgical channel, and an endoscope enabled observation of the hematoma's location to achieve satisfactory hematoma removal.

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Yaxing Chen and Liangxue Zhou

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Qiao Zuo, Pengfei Yang, Nan Lv, Qinghai Huang, Yu Zhou, Xiaoxi Zhang, Guoli Duan, Yina Wu, Yi Xu, Bo Hong, Rui Zhao, Qiang Li, Yibin Fang, Kaijun Zhao, Dongwei Dai and Jianmin Liu

OBJECTIVE

The authors compared the contemporary perioperative procedure-related complications between coiling with stent placement and coiling without stent placement for acutely ruptured aneurysms treated in a single center after improvement of interventional skills and strategy.

METHODS

In an institutional review board–approved protocol, 133 patients who underwent coiling with stent placement and 289 patients who underwent coiling without stent placement from January 2012 to December 2014 were consecutively reviewed retrospectively. Baseline characteristics, procedure-related complications and mortality rate, angiographic follow-up results, and clinical outcomes were compared between the two groups. Univariate analysis and logistic regression analysis were performed to determine the association of procedure-related complications of coiling with stent placement with potential risk factors.

RESULTS

The coiling/stent group and coiling/no-stent group were statistically comparable with respect to all baseline characteristics except for aneurysm location (p < 0.001) and parent artery configuration (p = 0.024). The immediate embolization results and clinical outcomes between the two groups showed no significant differences (p = 0.807 and p = 0.611, respectively). The angiographic follow-up results of the coiling in stent group showed a significant higher occlusion rate and lower recurrence rate compared with the coiling/no-stent group (82.5% vs 66.7%, 3.5% vs 14.5%, p = 0.007). Procedure-related intraoperative rupture and thrombosis, postoperative early rebleeding and thrombosis, and external ventricular drainage–related hemorrhagic event occurred in 3.0% (4 of 133), 2.3% (3 of 133), 1.5% (2 of 133), 0.7% (1 of 133), and 0.8% (1 of 133) of the coiling/stent group compared with 1.0% (3 of 289), 1.4% (4 of 289), 1.4% (4 of 289), and 0.7% (2 of 289) of the coiling/no-stent group, respectively (p = 0.288, p = 0.810, p = 1.000, p = 0.315, and p = 1.000, respectively). One patient presented with coil protrusion in the group of coiling without stent. The procedure-related mortality was 1.5% (2 of 133) in the coiling/stent group and 0.7% in the coiling/no-stent group (p = 0.796). Multivariable analysis showed no significant predictors for the total perioperative procedure-related complications, hemorrhagic complications, or ischemic complications.

CONCLUSIONS

The perioperative procedure-related complications and mortality rate did not differ significantly between the coiling/stent group and the coiling/no-stent group for patients with acutely ruptured aneurysms. Considering the better angiographic follow-up results, coiling with stent placement might be a feasible, safe, and promising option for treatment in the acute phase of selected wide-necked ruptured intracranial aneurysms.