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Open access

Shingo Nishihiro, Tomotsugu Ichikawa, Yu Takahashi, Yuichi Hirata, Nobuhiko Kawai, Satoshi Kuramoto, Yasuhiro Ono, Yuji Goda, and Masamitsu Kawauchi

BACKGROUND

Normal posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) anatomy is highly variable, but bihemispheric PICA crossing the midline to supply the vascular territory of bilateral cerebellar hemisphere is rare. Herein, the authors reported a rare case of ruptured aneurysm that was associated with bihemispheric PICA and successfully treated endovascularly.

OBSERVATIONS

A 46-year-old woman presented with sudden headache and loss of consciousness because of an intraventricular hemorrhage due to a ruptured aneurysm that was associated with the bihemispheric PICA. Angiography revealed that the aneurysm was located at the bifurcation between the bihemispheric PICA and the bilateral distal PICA. The ruptured aneurysm was successfully occluded using coil embolization, which preserved the parent artery with no procedural-related complication.

LESSONS

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this was the first report of a ruptured aneurysm associated with bihemispheric PICA being successfully treated endovascularly. Aneurysm formation may be accelerated by hemodynamic stress and vascular fragility. For neurosurgeons and neurointerventionalists, it is important to understand the anatomical variation of PICA, especially bihemispheric PICA, which is a potential risk factor for a fatal stroke.

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Masafumi Hiramatsu, Kenji Sugiu, Tomohito Hishikawa, Shingo Nishihiro, Naoya Kidani, Yu Takahashi, Satoshi Murai, Isao Date, Naoya Kuwayama, Tetsu Satow, Koji Iihara, and Nobuyuki Sakai

OBJECTIVE

Embolization is the most common treatment for dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs). A retrospective, multicenter observational study was conducted in Japan to clarify the nature, frequency, and risk factors for complications of dAVF embolization.

METHODS

Patient data were derived from the Japanese Registry of Neuroendovascular Therapy 3 (JR-NET3). A total of 40,169 procedures were registered in JR-NET3, including 2121 procedures (5.28%) in which dAVFs were treated with embolization. After data extraction, the authors analyzed complication details and risk factors in 1940 procedures performed in 1458 patients with cranial dAVFs treated with successful or attempted embolization.

RESULTS

Transarterial embolization (TAE) alone was performed in 858 cases (44%), and transvenous embolization (TVE) alone was performed in 910 cases (47%). Both TAE and TVE were performed in one session in 172 cases (9%). Complications occurred in 149 cases (7.7%). Thirty-day morbidity and mortality occurred in 55 cases (2.8%) and 16 cases (0.8%), respectively. Non–sinus-type locations, radical embolization as the strategy, procedure done at a hospital that performed dAVF embolization in fewer than 10 cases during the study period, and emergency procedures were independent risk factors for overall complications.

CONCLUSIONS

Complication rates of dAVF embolization in Japan were acceptable. For better results, the risk factors identified in this study should be considered in treatment decisions.

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Tomohiro Banno, Yu Yamato, Hiroki Oba, Tetsuro Ohba, Tomohiko Hasegawa, Go Yoshida, Hideyuki Arima, Shin Oe, Yuki Mihara, Hiroki Ushirozako, Jun Takahashi, Hirotaka Haro, and Yukihiro Matsuyama

OBJECTIVE

Pelvic obliquity is frequently observed in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with thoracolumbar/lumbar (TL/L) curve. This study aimed to assess pelvic obliquity changes and their effects on clinical outcomes of posterior fusion surgery.

METHODS

Data in 80 patients (69 with type 5C and 11 with type 6C adolescent idiopathic scoliosis) who underwent posterior fusion surgery were retrospectively analyzed. Pelvic obliquity was defined as an absolute pelvic obliquity angle (POA) value of ≥ 3°. The patients were divided into groups according to preoperative pelvic obliquity. Moreover, patients with preoperative pelvic obliquity were divided based on POA change from preoperative values versus 2 years postoperatively. Patients were divided based on the presence of selective or nonselective TL/L fusion. Radiographic parameters and clinical outcomes were compared between these groups.

RESULTS

Among 80 patients, 41 (51%) showed preoperative pelvic obliquity, and its direction was upward to the right for all cases. Coronal decompensation 2 years postoperatively was significantly elevated in patients with preoperative pelvic obliquity (p < 0.05). Thirty-two patients (40%) displayed pelvic obliquity 2 years postoperatively. Among 41 patients with preoperative pelvic obliquity, 22 patients (54%) were in the group with a decrease in POA, and 19 were in the group with no decrease. The group with no decrease in POA showed significant TL/L curve progression throughout the postoperative follow-up period. The patients with nonselective fusion showed a significantly lower incidence of pelvic obliquity at 2 years postoperatively.

CONCLUSIONS

Postoperative coronal decompensation more frequently occurred in patients with preoperative pelvic obliquity than in those without pelvic obliquity preoperatively. In addition, postoperative pelvic obliquity changes may be related to residual lumbar curve behavior.

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Hidetoshi Matsukawa, Hiroyasu Kamiyama, Yu Kinoshita, Norihiro Saito, Yuto Hatano, Takanori Miyazaki, Nakao Ota, Kosumo Noda, Takaharu Shonai, Osamu Takahashi, Sadahisa Tokuda, and Rokuya Tanikawa

OBJECTIVE

It is well known that larger aneurysm size is a risk factor for poor outcome after surgical treatment of unruptured saccular intracranial aneurysms (USIAs). However, the authors have occasionally observed poor outcome in the surgical treatment of small USIAs and hypothesized that size ratio has a negative impact on outcome. The aim of this paper was to investigate the influence of size ratio on outcome in the surgical treatment of USIAs.

METHODS

Prospectively collected clinical and radiological data of 683 consecutive patients harboring 683 surgically treated USIAs were evaluated. Dome-to-neck ratio was defined as the ratio of the maximum width of the aneurysm to the average neck diameter. The aspect ratio was defined as the ratio of the maximum perpendicular height of the aneurysm to the average neck diameter of the aneurysm. The size ratio was calculated by dividing the maximum aneurysm diameter (height or width, mm) by the average parent artery diameter (mm). Neurological worsening was defined as an increase in modified Rankin Scale score of 1 or more points at 12 months. Clinical and radiological variables were compared between patients with and without neurological worsening.

RESULTS

The median patient age was 64 years (IQR 56–71 years), and 528 (77%) patients were female. The median maximum size, dome-to-neck ratio, aspect ratio, and size ratio were 4.7 mm (IQR 3.6–6.7 mm), 1.2 (IQR 1.0–1.4), 1.0 (IQR 0.76–1.3), and 1.9 (IQR 1.4–2.8), respectively. The size ratio was significantly correlated with maximum size (r = 0.83, p < 0.0001), dome-to-neck ratio (r = 0.69, p < 0.0001), and aspect ratio (r = 0.74, p < 0.0001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the specific USIA location (paraclinoid segment of the internal carotid artery: OR 6.2, 95% CI 2.6–15, p < 0.0001; and basilar artery: OR 8.4, 95% CI 2.8–25, p < 0.0001), size ratio (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1–1.6, p = 0.021), and postoperative ischemic lesion (OR 9.4, 95% CI 4.4–19, p < 0.0001) were associated with neurological worsening (n = 52, 7.6%), and other characteristics showed no significant differences.

CONCLUSIONS

The present study showed that size ratio, and not other morphological parameters, was a risk factor for 12-month neurological worsening in surgically treated patients with USIAs. The size ratio should be further studied in a large, prospective observational cohort to predict neurological worsening in the surgical treatment of USIAs.

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Hidetoshi Matsukawa, Hiroyasu Kamiyama, Toshiyuki Tsuboi, Kosumo Noda, Nakao Ota, Shiro Miyata, Takanori Miyazaki, Yu Kinoshita, Norihiro Saito, Osamu Takahashi, Rihee Takeda, Sadahisa Tokuda, and Rokuya Tanikawa

OBJECTIVE

Only a few previous studies have investigated subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) after surgical treatment in patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs). Given the improvement in long-term outcomes of embolization, more extensive data are needed concerning the true rupture rates after microsurgery in order to provide reliable information for treatment decisions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of and risk factors for postoperative SAH in patients with surgically treated UIAs.

METHODS

Data from 702 consecutive patients harboring 852 surgically treated UIAs were evaluated. Surgical treatments included neck clipping (complete or incomplete), coating/wrapping, trapping, proximal occlusion, and bypass surgery. Clippable UIAs were defined as UIAs treated by complete neck clipping. The annual incidence of postoperative SAH and risk factors for SAH were studied using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression models.

RESULTS

The patients’ median age was 64 years (interquartile range [IQR] 56–71 years). Of 852 UIAs, 767 were clippable and 85 were not. The mean duration of follow-up was 731 days (SD 380 days). During 1708 aneurysm years, there were 4 episodes of SAH, giving an overall average annual incidence rate of 0.23% (95% CI 0.12%–0.59%) and an average annual incidence rate of 0.065% (95% CI 0.0017%–0.37%) for clippable UIAs (1 episode of SAH, 1552 aneurysm-years). Basilar artery location (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 23, 95% CI 2.0–255, p = 0.0012) and unclippable UIA status (adjusted HR 15, 95% CI 1.1–215, p = 0.046) were significantly related to postoperative SAH. An excellent outcome (modified Rankin Scale score of 0 or 1) was achieved in 816 (95.7%) of 852 cases overall and in 748 (98%) of 767 clippable UIAs at 12 months.

CONCLUSIONS

In this large case series, microsurgical treatment of UIAs was found to be safe and effective. Aneurysm location and unclippable morphologies were related to postoperative SAH in patients with surgically treated UIAs.

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Hidetoshi Matsukawa, Hiroyasu Kamiyama, Takanori Miyazaki, Yu Kinoshita, Nakao Ota, Kosumo Noda, Takaharu Shonai, Osamu Takahashi, Sadahisa Tokuda, and Rokuya Tanikawa

OBJECTIVE

Perforator territory infarction (PTI) is still a major problem needing to be solved to achieve good outcomes in aneurysm surgery. However, details and risk factors of PTI diagnosed on postoperative MRI remain unknown. The authors aimed to investigate the details of PTI on postoperative diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in patients with surgically treated unruptured intracranial saccular aneurysms (UISAs).

METHODS

The data of 848 patients with 1047 UISAs were retrospectively evaluated. PTI was diagnosed on DWI, which was performed the day after aneurysm surgery. Clinical and radiological characteristics were compared between UISAs with and without PTI. Poor outcome was defined as an increase in 1 or more modified Rankin Scale scores at 12 months after aneurysm surgery.

RESULTS

Postoperative DWI was performed in all cases, and it revealed PTI in 56 UISA cases (5.3%). Forty-three PTIs occurred without direct injury and occlusion of perforators (43 of 56, 77%). Poor outcome was more frequently observed in the PTI group (17 of 56, 30%) than the non-PTI group (57 of 1047, 5.4%) (p < 0.0001). Thalamotuberal arteries (p < 0.01), lateral striate arteries (p < 0.01), Heubner’s artery (p < 0.01), anterior median commissural artery (p < 0.05), terminal internal carotid artery perforators (p < 0 0.01), and basilar artery perforator (p < 0 0.01) infarctions were related to poor outcome by adjusted residual analysis. On multivariate analysis, statin use (OR 10, 95% CI, 3.3–31; p < 0.0001), specific aneurysm locations (posterior communicating artery [OR 4.1, 95% CI 2.1–8.1; p < 0.0001] and basilar artery [OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.1–8.9; p = 0.031]), larger aneurysm size (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.1–1.2; p = 0.043), and permanent decrease of motor evoked potential (OR 38, 95% CI 3.1–468; p = 0.0045) were related to PTI.

CONCLUSIONS

Despite efforts to avoid PTI, it occurred even without direct injury, occlusion of perforators, or evoked potential abnormality. Therefore, surgical treatment of UISAs, especially with the aforementioned risk factors of PTI, should be more carefully considered. The evaluation of PTI in the territory of the above-mentioned perforators could be useful in helping predict the clinical course in patients after aneurysm surgery.

Free access

Hiroki Ushirozako, Tomohiko Hasegawa, Shigeto Ebata, Tetsuro Ohba, Hiroki Oba, Keijiro Mukaiyama, Satoshi Shimizu, Yu Yamato, Koichiro Ide, Yosuke Shibata, Toshiyuki Ojima, Jun Takahashi, Hirotaka Haro, and Yukihiro Matsuyama

OBJECTIVE

Nonunion after posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) is associated with poor long-term outcomes in terms of health-related quality of life. Biomechanical factors in the fusion segment may influence spinal fusion rates. There are no reports on the relationship between intervertebral union and the absorption of autografts or vertebral endplates. Therefore, the purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the risk factors of nonunion after PLIF and identify preventive measures.

METHODS

The authors analyzed 138 patients who underwent 1-level PLIF between 2016 and 2018 (75 males, 63 females; mean age 67 years; minimum follow-up period 12 months). Lumbar CT images obtained soon after the surgery and at 6 and 12 months of follow-up were examined for the mean total occupancy rate of the autograft, presence of a translucent zone between the autograft and endplate (more than 50% of vertebral diameter), cage subsidence, and screw loosening. Complete intervertebral union was defined as the presence of both upper and lower complete fusion in the center cage regions on coronal and sagittal CT slices at 12 months postoperatively. Patients were classified into either union or nonunion groups.

RESULTS

Complete union after PLIF was observed in 62 patients (45%), while nonunion was observed in 76 patients (55%). The mean total occupancy rate of the autograft immediately after the surgery was higher in the union group than in the nonunion group (59% vs 53%; p = 0.046). At 12 months postoperatively, the total occupancy rate of the autograft had decreased by 5.4% in the union group and by 11.9% in the nonunion group (p = 0.020). A translucent zone between the autograft and endplate immediately after the surgery was observed in 14 and 38 patients (23% and 50%) in the union and nonunion groups, respectively (p = 0.001). The nonunion group had a significantly higher proportion of cases with cage subsidence and screw loosening at 12 months postoperatively in comparison to the union group (p = 0.010 and p = 0.009, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS

A lower occupancy rate of the autograft and the presence of a translucent zone between the autograft and endplate immediately after the surgery were associated with nonunion at 12 months after PLIF. It may be important to achieve sufficient contact between the autograft and endplate intraoperatively for osseous union enhancement and to avoid excessive absorption of the autograft. The achievement of complete intervertebral union may decrease the incidence of cage subsidence or screw loosening.

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Tomohiro Banno, Yu Yamato, Hiroki Oba, Tetsuro Ohba, Tomohiko Hasegawa, Go Yoshida, Hideyuki Arima, Shin Oe, Yuki Mihara, Hiroki Ushirozako, Jun Takahashi, Hirotaka Haro, and Yukihiro Matsuyama

OBJECTIVE

L3 is most often selected as the lowest instrumented vertebra (LIV) to conserve mobile segments in fusion surgery; however, in cases with the lowest end vertebra (LEV) at L4, LIV selection as L3 could have a potential risk of correction loss and coronal decompensation. This study aimed to compare the clinical and radiographic outcomes depending on the LEV in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients with Lenke type 5C curves.

METHODS

Data from 49 AIS patients with Lenke type 5C curves who underwent selective thoracolumbar/lumbar (TL/L) fusion to L3 as the LIV were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were classified according to their LEVs into L3 and L4 groups. In the L4 group, subanalysis was performed according to the upper instrumented vertebra (UIV) level toward the upper end vertebra (UEV and 1 level above the UEV [UEV+1] subgroups). Radiographic parameters and clinical outcomes were compared between these groups.

RESULTS

Among 49 patients, 32 and 17 were in the L3 and L4 groups, respectively. The L4 group showed a lower TL/L curve correction rate and a higher subjacent disc angle postoperatively than the L3 group. Although no intergroup difference was observed in coronal balance (CB), the L4 group showed a significantly higher main thoracic (MT) and TL/L curve progression during the postoperative follow-up period than the L3 group. In the L4 group, the UEV+1 subgroup showed a higher absolute value of CB at 2 years than the UEV subgroup.

CONCLUSIONS

In Lenke type 5C AIS patients with posterior selective TL/L fusion to L3 as the LIV, patients with their LEVs at L4 showed postoperative MT and TL/L curve progression; however, no significant differences were observed in global alignment and clinical outcome.

Open access

Masafumi Hiramatsu, Ryota Ishibashi, Etsuji Suzuki, Yuko Miyazaki, Satoshi Murai, Hiroki Takai, Yuji Takasugi, Yoko Yamaoka, Kazuhiko Nishi, Yu Takahashi, Jun Haruma, Tomohito Hishikawa, Takao Yasuhara, Masaki Chin, Shunji Matsubara, Masaaki Uno, Koji Tokunaga, Kenji Sugiu, and Isao Date

OBJECTIVE

There have been no accurate surveillance data regarding the incidence rate of spinal arteriovenous shunts (SAVSs). Here, the authors investigate the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of SAVSs.

METHODS

The authors conducted multicenter hospital-based surveillance as an inventory survey at 8 core hospitals in Okayama Prefecture between April 1, 2009, and March 31, 2019. Consecutive patients who lived in Okayama and were diagnosed with SAVSs on angiographic studies were enrolled. The clinical characteristics and the incidence rates of each form of SAVS and the differences between SAVSs at different spinal levels were analyzed.

RESULTS

The authors identified a total of 45 patients with SAVSs, including 2 cases of spinal arteriovenous malformation, 5 cases of perimedullary arteriovenous fistula (AVF), 31 cases of spinal dural AVF (SDAVF), and 7 cases of spinal epidural AVF (SEAVF). The crude incidence rate was 0.234 per 100,000 person-years for all SAVSs including those at the craniocervical junction (CCJ) level. The incidence rate of SDAVF and SEAVF combined increased with advancing age in men only. In a comparative analysis between upper and lower spinal SDAVF/SEAVF, hemorrhage occurred in 7/14 cases (50%) at the CCJ/cervical level and in 0/24 cases (0%) at the thoracolumbar level (p = 0.0003). Venous congestion appeared in 1/14 cases (7%) at the CCJ/cervical level and in 23/24 cases (96%) at the thoracolumbar level (p < 0.0001).

CONCLUSIONS

The authors reported detailed incidence rates of SAVSs in Japan. There were some differences in clinical characteristics of SAVSs in the upper spinal levels and those in the lower spinal levels.