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Norimasa Ikeda, Shunsuke Fujibayashi, Bungo Otsuki, Kazutaka Masamoto, Takayoshi Shimizu, Yu Shimizu, Koichi Murata, and Shuichi Matsuda

OBJECTIVE

The goal of this study was to investigate clinical outcomes and risk factors for the progression of sacroiliac joint (SIJ) degeneration and bone formation after S2 alar-iliac screw (S2AIS) insertion.

METHODS

Using preoperative and follow-up CT scan findings (median follow-up 26 months, range 16–43 months), the authors retrospectively studied 100 SIJs in 50 patients who underwent S2AIS placement. The authors measured the progression of SIJ degeneration and bone formation after S2AIS insertion, postoperative new-onset SIJ pain, S2AIS-related reoperation, and instrumentation failures. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression modeling was performed to clarify the risk factors associated with the progression of SIJ degeneration.

RESULTS

Significant progression of SIJ degeneration was observed in 10% of the group with preoperative SIJ degeneration (p = 0.01). Bone formation was observed in 6.9% of joints. None of the patients with these radiographic changes had new-onset SIJ pain or underwent reoperation related to instrumentation failures. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that preoperative SIJ degeneration (p < 0.01) and a young age at surgery (p = 0.03) significantly affected the progression of SIJ degeneration.

CONCLUSIONS

The progression of SIJ degeneration and bone formation neither led to major screw-related complications nor affected the postoperative clinical course during the median follow-up period of 26 months. Although S2AIS insertion is a safe procedure for most patients, the results of this study suggested that preoperative degeneration and younger age at surgery affected SIJ degeneration after S2AIS insertion. Further long-term observation may reveal other effects of S2AIS insertion on SIJ degeneration.

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Kosuke Hayashi, Hiroharu Kataoka, Manabu Minami, Taichi Ikedo, Takeshi Miyata, Kampei Shimizu, Manabu Nagata, Tao Yang, Yu Yamamoto, Masayuki Yokode, and Susumu Miyamoto

OBJECTIVE

Zinc is an essential micronutrient with multiple biological effects, including antiinflammation. Previously, the authors demonstrated that the pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) is strongly related to chronic inflammation. In this study, the authors investigated whether administration of zinc inhibits the growth of IAs in a rat model.

METHODS

The authors analyzed surgically induced IAs in Sprague-Dawley male rats, which were subsequently treated with intraperitoneal injections of zinc sulfate heptahydrate (ZnSO4; 3 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for 4 weeks.

RESULTS

Size and wall thickness ratios of experimentally induced IAs were assessed in both treatment groups after induction and in a control group. The effects of zinc administration in IAs were examined by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Zinc administration significantly suppressed aneurysm size and also preserved the internal elastic lumen. Administration of zinc significantly attenuated infiltration of macrophages into IAs.

CONCLUSIONS

Zinc treatment significantly increased expression of the antiinflammatory signaling protein A20, an inhibitor of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway, in rat IAs. Zinc administration may prevent the growth of rat IAs by inducing A20-attributed inactivation of NF-κB signaling.

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Haruka Miyata, Hirohiko Imai, Hirokazu Koseki, Kampei Shimizu, Yu Abekura, Mieko Oka, Takakazu Kawamata, Tetsuya Matsuda, Kazuhiko Nozaki, Shuh Narumiya, and Tomohiro Aoki

OBJECTIVE

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has a poor outcome despite modern advancements in medical care. The development of a novel therapeutic strategy to prevent rupture of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) or a novel diagnostic marker to predict rupture-prone lesions is thus mandatory. Therefore, in the present study, the authors established a rat model in which IAs spontaneously rupture and examined this model to clarify histopathological features associated with rupture of lesions.

METHODS

Female Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to bilateral ovariectomy; the ligation of the left common carotid, the right external carotid, and the right pterygopalatine arteries; induced systemic hypertension; and the administration of a lysyl oxidase inhibitor.

RESULTS

Aneurysmal SAH occurred in one-third of manipulated animals and the locations of ruptured IAs were exclusively at a posterior or anterior communicating artery (PCoA/ACoA). Histopathological examination using ruptured IAs, rupture-prone IAs induced at a PCoA or ACoA, and IAs induced at an anterior cerebral artery–olfactory artery bifurcation that never ruptured revealed the formation of vasa vasorum as an event associated with rupture of IAs.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors propose the contribution of a structural change in an adventitia, i.e., vasa vasorum formation, to the rupture of IAs. Findings from this study provide important insights about the pathogenesis of IAs.

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Kosuke Hayashi, Hiroharu Kataoka, Manabu Minami, Taichi Ikedo, Takeshi Miyata, Kampei Shimizu, Manabu Nagata, Tao Yang, Yu Yamamoto, Masayuki Yokode, and Susumu Miyamoto

OBJECTIVE

Zinc is an essential micronutrient with multiple biological effects, including antiinflammation. Previously, the authors demonstrated that the pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) is strongly related to chronic inflammation. In this study, the authors investigated whether administration of zinc inhibits the growth of IAs in a rat model.

METHODS

The authors analyzed surgically induced IAs in Sprague-Dawley male rats, which were subsequently treated with intraperitoneal injections of zinc sulfate heptahydrate (ZnSO4; 3 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for 4 weeks.

RESULTS

Size and wall thickness ratios of experimentally induced IAs were assessed in both treatment groups after induction and in a control group. The effects of zinc administration in IAs were examined by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Zinc administration significantly suppressed aneurysm size and also preserved the internal elastic lumen. Administration of zinc significantly attenuated infiltration of macrophages into IAs.

CONCLUSIONS

Zinc treatment significantly increased expression of the antiinflammatory signaling protein A20, an inhibitor of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway, in rat IAs. Zinc administration may prevent the growth of rat IAs by inducing A20-attributed inactivation of NF-κB signaling.

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Takeshi Shimizu, Koichi Hosomi, Tomoyuki Maruo, Yuko Goto, Masaru Yokoe, Yu Kageyama, Toshio Shimokawa, Toshiki Yoshimine, and Youichi Saitoh

OBJECTIVE

Electrical motor cortex stimulation can relieve neuropathic pain (NP), but its use requires patients to undergo an invasive procedure. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the primary motor cortex (M1) using a figure-8 coil can relieve NP noninvasively, but its ability to relieve lower limb pain is still limited. Deep rTMS using an H-coil can effectively stimulate deep brain regions and has been widely used for the treatment of various neurological diseases; however, there have been no clinical studies comparing the effectiveness of figure-8 coils and H-coils. This study assessed the clinical effectiveness of 5 once-daily stimulations with H-coils and figure-8 coils in patients with NP.

METHODS

This randomized, double-blind, 3-way crossover trial examined 18 patients with NP who sequentially received 3 types of stimulations in the M1 for 5 consecutive days; each 5-day stimulation period was followed by a 17-day follow-up period before crossing over to the next type of stimulation. During each rTMS session, patients received a 5-Hz rTMS to the M1 region corresponding to the painful lower limb. The visual analog scale (VAS) and the Japanese version of the short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire 2 (SF-MPQ2-J) were used to measure pain intensity. The primary outcome was VAS score reduction immediately after and 1 hour after intervention.

RESULTS

Both the VAS and SF-MPQ2-J showed significant pain improvement immediately after deep rTMS with an H-coil as compared with the sham group (p < 0.001 and p = 0.049, respectively). However, neither outcome measure showed significant pain improvement when using a figure-8 coil. The VAS also showed significant pain improvement 1 hour after deep rTMS with an H-coil (p = 0.004) but not 1 hour after rTMS using a figure-8 coil. None of the patients exhibited any serious adverse events.

CONCLUSIONS

The current findings suggest that the use of deep rTMS with an H-coil in the lower limb region of the M1 in patients with NP was tolerable and could provide significant short-term pain relief.

Clinical trial registration no.: UMIN000010536 (http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/)

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Hiroki Ushirozako, Tomohiko Hasegawa, Shigeto Ebata, Tetsuro Ohba, Hiroki Oba, Keijiro Mukaiyama, Satoshi Shimizu, Yu Yamato, Koichiro Ide, Yosuke Shibata, Toshiyuki Ojima, Jun Takahashi, Hirotaka Haro, and Yukihiro Matsuyama

OBJECTIVE

Nonunion after posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) is associated with poor long-term outcomes in terms of health-related quality of life. Biomechanical factors in the fusion segment may influence spinal fusion rates. There are no reports on the relationship between intervertebral union and the absorption of autografts or vertebral endplates. Therefore, the purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the risk factors of nonunion after PLIF and identify preventive measures.

METHODS

The authors analyzed 138 patients who underwent 1-level PLIF between 2016 and 2018 (75 males, 63 females; mean age 67 years; minimum follow-up period 12 months). Lumbar CT images obtained soon after the surgery and at 6 and 12 months of follow-up were examined for the mean total occupancy rate of the autograft, presence of a translucent zone between the autograft and endplate (more than 50% of vertebral diameter), cage subsidence, and screw loosening. Complete intervertebral union was defined as the presence of both upper and lower complete fusion in the center cage regions on coronal and sagittal CT slices at 12 months postoperatively. Patients were classified into either union or nonunion groups.

RESULTS

Complete union after PLIF was observed in 62 patients (45%), while nonunion was observed in 76 patients (55%). The mean total occupancy rate of the autograft immediately after the surgery was higher in the union group than in the nonunion group (59% vs 53%; p = 0.046). At 12 months postoperatively, the total occupancy rate of the autograft had decreased by 5.4% in the union group and by 11.9% in the nonunion group (p = 0.020). A translucent zone between the autograft and endplate immediately after the surgery was observed in 14 and 38 patients (23% and 50%) in the union and nonunion groups, respectively (p = 0.001). The nonunion group had a significantly higher proportion of cases with cage subsidence and screw loosening at 12 months postoperatively in comparison to the union group (p = 0.010 and p = 0.009, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS

A lower occupancy rate of the autograft and the presence of a translucent zone between the autograft and endplate immediately after the surgery were associated with nonunion at 12 months after PLIF. It may be important to achieve sufficient contact between the autograft and endplate intraoperatively for osseous union enhancement and to avoid excessive absorption of the autograft. The achievement of complete intervertebral union may decrease the incidence of cage subsidence or screw loosening.

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Oral Presentations

2010 AANS Annual Meeting Philadelphia, Pennsylvania May 1–5, 2010