Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 19 items for

  • Author or Editor: Young-Jin Jung x
  • All content x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

Jong-Hoon Kim, Young-Jin Jung, and Chul-Hoon Chang

OBJECTIVE

The optimal treatment for underlying intracranial atherosclerosis (ICAS) in patients with emergent large-vessel occlusion (ELVO) remains unclear. Reocclusion during endovascular treatment (EVT) occurs frequently (57.1%–77.3%) after initial recanalization with stent retriever (SR) thrombectomy in ICAS-related ELVO. This study aimed to compare treatment outcomes of the strategy of first stenting without retrieval (FRESH) using the Solitaire FR versus SR thrombectomy in patients with ICAS-related ELVO.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke and intracranial ELVO of the anterior circulation who underwent EVT between January 2017 and December 2019 at Yeungnam University Medical Center. Large-vessel occlusion (LVO) of the anterior circulation was classified by etiology as follows: 1) no significant stenosis after recanalization (embolic group) and 2) remnant stenosis > 70% or lesser degree of stenosis with a tendency toward reocclusion and/or flow impairment during EVT (ICAS group). The ICAS group was divided into the SR thrombectomy group (SR thrombectomy) and the FRESH group.

RESULTS

A total of 105 patients (62 men and 43 women; median age 71 years, IQR 62.5–79 years) were included. The embolic, SR thrombectomy, and FRESH groups comprised 66 (62.9%), 26 (24.7%), and 13 (12.4%) patients, respectively. There were no significant differences between the SR thrombectomy and FRESH groups in symptom onset–to-door time, but puncture-to-recanalization time was significantly shorter in the latter group (39 vs 54 minutes, p = 0.032). There were fewer stent retrieval passes but more first-pass recanalizations in the FRESH group (p < 0.001). Favorable functional outcomes were significantly more frequent in the FRESH group (84.6% vs 42.3%, p = 0.017).

CONCLUSIONS

This study’s findings suggest that FRESH, rather than rescue stenting, could be a treatment option for ICAS-related ELVO.

Full access

Jae-Sung Ahn, Ho-Jin Lee, Dae-Jung Choi, Ki-young Lee, and Sung-jin Hwang

This study was performed to describe the extraforaminal approach of biportal endoscopic spinal surgery (BESS) as a new endoscopic technique for transforaminal decompression and discectomy and to demonstrate the clinical outcomes of this new procedure for the first time. Twenty-one patients (27 segments) who underwent the extraforaminal approach of BESS between March 2015 and April 2016 were enrolled according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The operative time (minutes/level) and complications after the procedure were recorded. The visual analog scale (VAS) score was checked to assess the degree of radicular leg pain preoperatively and at the time of the last follow-up. The modified Macnab criteria were used to examine the clinical outcomes at the time of the last follow-up. The mean duration of the follow-up period was 14.8 months (minimum duration 12 months). The mean operative time was 96.7 minutes for one level. The mean VAS score for radicular leg pain dropped from a preoperative score of 7.5 ± 0.9 to a final follow-up score of 2.5 ± 1.2 (p < 0.001). The final outcome according to the modified Macnab criteria was excellent in 5 patients (23.8%), good in 12 (57.2%), fair in 4 (19.0%), and poor in 0. Therefore, excellent or good results (a satisfied outcome) were obtained in 80.9% of the patients. Complications were limited to one dural tear (4.8%). The authors found that the extraforaminal approach of BESS was a feasible and advantageous endoscopic technique for the treatment of foraminal lesions, including stenosis and disc herniation. They suggest that this technique represents a useful, alternative, minimally invasive method that can be used to treat lumbar foraminal stenosis and disc herniation.

Free access

Na Young Jung, Chang Kyu Park, Won Seok Chang, Hyun Ho Jung, and Jin Woo Chang

OBJECTIVE

Although neurosurgical procedures are effective treatments for controlling involuntary tremor in patients with essential tremor (ET), they can cause cognitive decline, which can affect quality of life (QOL). The purpose of this study is to assess the changes in the neuropsychological profile and QOL of patients following MR-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) thalamotomy for ET.

METHODS

The authors prospectively analyzed 20 patients with ET who underwent unilateral MRgFUS thalamotomy at their institute in the period from March 2012 to September 2014. Patients were regularly evaluated with the Clinical Rating Scale for Tremor (CRST), neuroimaging, and cognition and QOL measures. The Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery was used to assess cognitive function, and the Quality of Life in Essential Tremor Questionnaire (QUEST) was used to evaluate the postoperative change in QOL.

RESULTS

The total CRST score improved by 67.3% (from 44.75 ± 9.57 to 14.65 ± 9.19, p < 0.001) at 1 year following MRgFUS thalamotomy. Mean tremor scores improved by 68% in the hand contralateral to the thalamotomy, but there was no significant improvement in the ipsilateral hand. Although minimal cognitive decline was observed without statistical significance, memory function was much improved (p = 0.031). The total QUEST score also showed the same trend of improving (64.16 ± 17.75 vs 27.38 ± 13.96, p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

The authors report that MRgFUS thalamotomy had beneficial effects in terms of not only tremor control but also safety for cognitive function and QOL. Acceptable postoperative changes in cognition and much-improved QOL positively support the clinical significance of MRgFUS thalamotomy as a new, favorable surgical treatment in patients with ET.

Full access

Hyungseok Seo, Eugene Kim, Haesun Jung, Young-Jin Lim, Jin Wook Kim, Chul-Kee Park, Young-Bem Se, Young-Tae Jeon, Jung-Won Hwang, and Hee-Pyoung Park

OBJECTIVE

Mannitol is used intraoperatively to induce brain relaxation in patients undergoing supratentorial brain tumor resection. The authors sought to determine the dose of mannitol that provides adequate brain relaxation with the fewest adverse effects.

METHODS

A total of 124 patients were randomized to receive mannitol at 0.25 g/kg (Group A), 0.5 g/kg (Group B), 1.0 g/kg (Group C), and 1.5 g/kg (Group D). The degree of brain relaxation was classified according to a 4-point scale (1, bulging; 2, firm; 3, adequate; and 4, perfectly relaxed) by neurosurgeons; Classes 3 and 4 were considered to indicate satisfactory brain relaxation. The osmolality gap (OG) and serum electrolytes were measured before and after mannitol administration.

RESULTS

The brain relaxation score showed an increasing trend in patients receiving higher doses of mannitol (p = 0.005). The incidence of satisfactory brain relaxation was higher in Groups C and D than in Group A (67.7% and 64.5% vs 32.2%, p = 0.011 and 0.022, respectively). The incidence of OG greater than 10 mOsm/kg was also higher in Groups C and D than in Group A (100.0% in both groups vs 77.4%, p = 0.011 for both). The incidence of moderate hyponatremia (125 mmol/L ≤ Na+ < 130 mmol/L) was significantly higher in Group D than in other groups (38.7% vs 0.0%, 9.7%, and 12.9% in Groups A, B, and C; p < 0.001, p = 0.008, and p = 0.020, respectively). Hyperkalemia (K+ > 5.0 mmol/L) was observed in 12.9% of patients in Group D only.

CONCLUSIONS

The higher doses of mannitol provided better brain relaxation but were associated with more adverse effects. Considering the balance between the benefits and risks of mannitol, the authors suggest the use of 1.0 g/kg of intraoperative mannitol for satisfactory brain relaxation with the fewest adverse effects.

Clinical trial registration no.: NCT02168075 (clinicaltrials.gov)

Restricted access

Ki Young Lee, Jung-Hee Lee, Kyung-Chung Kang, Won-Ju Shin, Sang Kyu Im, and Seong Jin Cho

OBJECTIVE

The incidence of proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) after long-segment fixation in patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD) has been reported to range from 17% to 61.7%. Recent studies have reported using “hybrid” techniques in which semirigid fixation is introduced between the fused and flexible segments at the proximal level to allow a more gradual transition. The authors used these hybrid techniques in a clinical setting and analyzed PJK to evaluate the usefulness of the flexible rod (FR) technique.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively selected 77 patients with lumbar degenerative kyphosis (LDK) who underwent sagittal correction and long-segment fixation and had follow-up for > 1 year. An FR was used in 30 of the 77 patients. PJK development and spinal sagittal changes were analyzed in the FR and non-FR groups, and the predictive factors of PJK between a PJK group and a non-PJK group were compared.

RESULTS

The patient population comprised 77 patients (75 females and 2 males) with a mean (± SD) follow-up of 32.0 ± 12.7 months (36.7 ± 9.8 months in the non-FR group and 16.8 ± 4.7 months in the FR group) and mean (± SD) age of 71.7 ± 5.1 years. Sagittal balance was well maintained at final follow-up (10.5 and 1.5 mm) in the non-FR and FR groups, respectively. Thoracic kyphosis (TK) and lumbar lordosis (LL) were improved in both groups, without significant differences between the two (p > 0.05). PJK occurred in 28 cases (36.4%) in total, 3 (10%) in the FR and 25 (53.2%) in the non-FR group (p < 0.001). Postoperatively, PJK was observed at an average of 8.9 months in the non-FR group and 1 month in the FR group. No significant differences in the incidence of PJK regarding patient factors or radiological parameters were found between the PJK group and non-PJK group (p > 0.05). However, FR (vs non-FR) and interbody fusion except L5–S1 using oblique lumbar interbody fusion (vs non–oblique lumbar interbody fusion), demonstrated a significantly lower PJK prevalence (p < 0.001 and p = 0.044) among the surgical factors.

CONCLUSIONS

PJK was reduced after surgical treatment with the FR in the patients with LDK. Solid long-segment fixation and the use of the FR may become another surgical option for spine surgeons who plan and make decisions regarding spine reconstruction surgery for patients with ASD.

Restricted access

Yang Kwon, Jae Sung Ahn, Sang Ryong Jeon, Jeong Hoon Kim, Chang Jin Kim, Jung Kyo Lee, Byung Duk Kwun, Do Hee Lee, and Sun Young Kim

Object. The authors evaluated whether gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) could be a causative factor in intratumoral bleeding in meningiomas.

Methods. Gamma knife radiosurgery was used in the treatment of 173 meningiomas during a 10-year period. Four patients suffered post-GKS intratumoral hemorrhage. The course in these patients was reviewed.

Four of 173 patients suffered an intratumoral hemorrhage during a follow-up period of 1 to 8 years. The risk of intratumoral bleeding after GKS for meningioma was 2.3%. Intracystic hemorrhage occurred in two patients 1 and 5 years, respectively, after radiosurgery. In the other two cases intratumoral bleeding occurred 2 and 8 years, respectively, after radiosurgery. Histological examination in three cases found no specific findings related to the postradiosurgical changes.

Conclusions. Because the reported risk of spontaneous intratumoral bleeding in meningiomas is 1.3 to 2.7%, the incidence in this series was not unduly high. Radiosurgery itself could not be shown to be a significant factor in the development of the intratumoral bleeding.

Full access

Na Young Jung, Chang Kyu Park, Minsoo Kim, Phil Hyu Lee, Young Ho Sohn, and Jin Woo Chang

OBJECTIVE

Recently, MR-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) has emerged as an innovative treatment for numerous neurological disorders, including essential tremor, Parkinson’s disease (PD), and some psychiatric disorders. Thus, clinical applications with this modality have been tried using various targets. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility, initial effectiveness, and potential side effects of unilateral MRgFUS pallidotomy for the treatment of parkinsonian dyskinesia.

METHODS

A prospective, nonrandomized, single-arm clinical trial was conducted between December 2013 and May 2016 at a single tertiary medical center. Ten patients with medication-refractory, dyskinesia-dominant PD were enrolled. Participants underwent unilateral MRgFUS pallidotomy using the Exablate 4000 device (InSightec) after providing written informed consent. Patients were serially evaluated for motor improvement, neuropsychological effects, and adverse events according to the 1-year follow-up protocol. Primary measures included the changes in the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale (UDysRS) scores from baseline to 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year. Secondary measures consisted of neuropsychological batteries and quality of life questionnaire (SF-36). Technical failure and safety issues were also carefully assessed by monitoring all events during the study period.

RESULTS

Unilateral MRgFUS pallidotomy was successfully performed in 8 of 10 patients (80%), and patients were followed up for more than 6 months. Clinical outcomes showed significant improvements of 32.2% in the “medication-off” UPDRS part III score (p = 0.018) and 52.7% in UDysRS (p = 0.017) at the 6-month follow-up, as well as 39.1% (p = 0.046) and 42.7% (p = 0.046) at the 1-year follow-up, respectively. These results were accompanied by improvement in quality of life. Among 8 cases, 1 patient suffered an unusual side effect of sonication; however, no patient experienced persistent aftereffects.

CONCLUSIONS

In the present study, which marks the first Phase I pilot study of unilateral MRgFUS pallidotomy for parkinsonian dyskinesia, the authors demonstrated the efficacy of pallidal lesioning using MRgFUS and certain limitations that are unavoidably associated with incomplete thermal lesioning due to technical issues. Further investigation and long-term follow-up are necessary to validate the use of MRgFUS in clinical practice.

Clinical trial registration no.: NCT02003248 (clinicaltrials.gov)

Restricted access

Tae-Young Jung, Shin Jung, Hyang-Hwa Ryu, Young-Il Jeong, Yong-Hao Jin, Shu-Guang Jin, In-Young Kim, Sam-Suk Kang, and Hyung-Seok Kim

Object

Galectin-1 is highly expressed in motile cell lines. The authors investigated whether galectin-1 actually modulates the migration and invasion of human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell lines, and whether its expression with respect to invasion and prognosis is attributable to certain glioma subgroups.

Methods

In the human GBM cell lines U343MG-A, U87MG, and U87MG-10′, the RNA differential display was evaluated using Genefishing technology. The results were validated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Northern blot analysis to detect possible genetic changes as the determining factors for the motility of the malignant glioma. The migration and invasion abilities were investigated in human GBM cell lines and galectin-1 transfectant using an in vitro brain slice invasion model and a simple scratch technique. The morphological and cytoskeletal (such as the development of actin and vimentin) changes were examined under light and confocal microscopy. Galectin-1 expression was assessed on immunohistochemical tests and Western blot analysis.

Results

Endogenous galectin-1 expression in the human GBM cell lines was statistically correlated with migratory abilities and invasiveness. The U87-G-AS cells became more round than the U87MG cells and lacked lamellipodia. On immunohistochemical staining, galectin-1 expression was increased in higher-grade glioma subgroups (p = 0.027).

Conclusions

Diffuse gliomas demonstrated higher expression levels than pilocytic astrocytoma in the Western blot. Galectin-1 appears to modulate migration and invasion in human glioma cell lines and may play a role in tumor progression and invasiveness in human gliomas.

Restricted access

Kyung-Sub Moon, Shin Jung, Seung-Kwon Seo, Tae-Young Jung, In-Young Kim, Hyang-Hwa Ryu, Yong-Hao Jin, Shu-Guang Jin, Young-Il Jeong, Kyung-Keun Kim, and Sam-Suk Kang

Object

The authors evaluated the clinical manifestations and surgical results in patients with cystic vestibular schwannoma (VS), and investigated the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression of the cyst fluid and wall in an attempt to elucidate the pathogenesis and characteristics of this disease.

Methods

The clinical and neuroimaging features, perioperative findings, and surgical outcomes in 24 cases of cystic VS and 82 cases of solid VS, all of which were treated using the suboccipital approach, were retrospectively compared. To evaluate the role of MMP in cystic VS, gelatin zymography and immunohistochemical studies of the cyst fluid, wall, and solid portion were performed in nine cases of this disease.

The mean duration of symptoms was shorter (14.0 months compared with 26.1 months; p = 0.04) and the mean size of the tumor was larger (43.8 mm compared with 34.2 mm; p = 0.048) in the cystic than the solid VS group. Although gross-total resection was easier to accomplish in this group (100% compared with 84.1%), adhesion to the facial nerve was more frequent (62.5% compared with 48.8%; p = 0.042). On gelatin zymography studies, MMP-2 expression was ubiquitously observed in all cyst fluids. Immunohistochemical analysis of the cyst wall showed that MMP-2 was apparently localized to the tumor cells on the luminal inner surface, adjacent to the cyst cavity.

Conclusions

Resection of cystic VS is complicated by severe adhesion of the tumor capsule to the facial nerve and the large size of the lesion. The authors believe that MMP-2 may be involved in the pathogenesis of cyst formation or in its enlargement and may aggravate adhesion to the facial nerve, either by promoting the enlargement of the tumor or engendering the degradation of the tumor–nerve barrier proteolytically.

Full access

Jin-Young Hwang, Seong-Won Min, Young-Tae Jeon, Jung-Won Hwang, Sang-Heon Park, Jin-Hee Kim, and Sung-Hee Han

OBJECT

Spinal cord ischemia remains a serious complication of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm surgery. Coenzyme Q10, a potent antioxidant, has been reported to exert a neuroprotective effect. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of coenzyme Q10 pretreatment on spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury.

METHODS

Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with either 300 mg/kg coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 group, n = 12) or saline (control and sham groups, n = 12 for each group) for 5 days before ischemia. Spinal cord ischemia was induced in the control and CoQ10 groups. Neurological function was assessed using the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) motor rating scale until 7 days after reperfusion, and then the spinal cord was harvested for histopathological examinations and an evaluation of malondialdehyde level.

RESULTS

On post-reperfusion Day 1, the CoQ10 group showed higher BBB scores compared with those in the control group, although the difference was not significant. However, on Day 2, the CoQ10 group showed a significantly higher BBB score than the control group (14.0 [10.3–15.0] vs 8.0 [5.0–9.8], median [IQR], respectively; p = 0.021), and this trend was maintained until Day 7 (17.5 [16.0–18.0] vs 9.0 [6.5–12.8], respectively; p < 0.001). Compared with the control group, the CoQ10 group had more normal motor neurons (p = 0.003), fewer apoptotic changes (p = 0.003) and a lower level of tissue malondialdehyde (p = 0.024).

CONCLUSIONS

Pretreatment with 300 mg/kg coenzyme Q10 resulted in significantly improved neurological function and preservation of more normal motor neurons.