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Primary stent therapy for symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis: 1-year follow-up angiographic and midterm clinical outcomes

Chang-Young Lee and Man-Bin Yim

Object

The aim of this study was to report 1-year angiographic follow-up results and midterm clinical outcomes in patients with symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic lesions treated with stent placement.

Methods

Ten patients with ischemic symptoms referable to stenotic intracranial atherosclerotic arteries, with greater than 60% stenosis, underwent elective surgery in which a primary stent was placed. All patients underwent pretreatment (≥ 1 week) combination oral antiplatelet (clopidogrel and aspirin) therapy and long-term (6-month) combination oral antiplatelet (clopidogrel and aspirin) therapy after stents were placed. The procedure involved selecting stents of the same size as the diameter of the target vessel and slowly inflating the balloon to its nominal pressure. One-year angiography and midterm clinical follow-up data were obtained.

The stents were successfully placed in all patients without any perioperative complication. The mean preoperative stenosis rate of 81% decreased to 4% after the stent was placed. Nine patients who underwent follow-up angiography (one patient refused) at a mean of 12.3 months (range 10–19 months) had no changes in luminal diameter compared with the immediate postoperative luminal diameter. Luminal narrowing increased, from 15 to 38%, in one case in which there was comparatively greater residual stenosis (15%). No patient suffered new ischemic symptoms during a mean clinical follow-up period of 21 months (range 12–36 months).

Conclusions

Elective stent surgery can provide good angiographic and clinical midterm outcomes in patients with symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis, and the procedure is associated with a high degree of technical success. Reassessment of these promising results is needed in a larger population and in a randomized prospective comparison study.

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Central core of the cerebrum

Laboratory investigation

Chan-Young Choi, Seong-Rok Han, Gi-Taek Yee, and Chae-Heuck Lee

Object

The purpose of this study was to understand 3D relationships of white matter fibers and subcortical areas of gray matter in the central core.

Methods

The lateral and medial aspects of 4 cerebral hemispheres were dissected, applying the fiber dissection technique under the microscope.

Results

The central core between the insula and midline includes the extreme, external, and internal capsules; claustrum; putamen; globus pallidus; caudate nucleus; amygdala; diencephalon; substantia innominata; fornix; anterior commissure; mammillothalamic tract; fasciculus retroflexus; thalamic peduncles, including optic and auditory radiations; ansa peduncularis; thalamic fasciculus; and lenticular fasciculus. It is attached to the remainder of the cerebral hemisphere by the cerebral isthmus, which is composed of white matter fibers located between the dorsolateral margin of the caudate nucleus and the full circumference of the circular sulcus of insula. The rostral fibers of the corpus callosum are included in the frontal portion of the cerebral isthmus.

Conclusions

It is very useful for neurosurgeons to facilitate the understanding of spatial relationships and pertinent surgical approaches in and around the central core with a highly complex anatomy by using fiber dissection.

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Gamma knife surgery for intracranial cavernous hemangioma

Moo Seong Kim, Se Young Pyo, Young Gyun Jeong, Sun Il Lee, Yong Tae Jung, and Jae Hong Sim

Object. The purpose of this study was to assess the benefits of radiosurgery for cavernous hemangioma.

Methods. Sixty-five cavernous hemangiomas were treated with gamma knife surgery (GKS) between October 1994 and December 2002. Forty-two patients attended follow up. The mean patient age was 37.6 years (range 7–60 years). The lesions were located in the frontal lobe in 12 cases, deep in the parietal lobe in five, in the basal ganglia in five, in the temporal in three, in the cerebellum in three, in the pons/midbrain in six, and in multiple locations in eight cases. The presenting symptoms were seizure in 12, hemorrhage in 11, and other in 19. The maximum dose was 26.78 Gy, and the mean margin dose was 14.55 Gy.

The mean follow-up period after radiosurgery was 29.6 months (range 5–93 months). The tumor decreased in size in 29 cases, was unchanged in 12, and increased in size in one. In the seizure group, seizures were controlled without anticonvulsant medication in nine cases (81.8%) after 31.3 months (range 12–80 months). After 93 months, one patient developed a cyst, which was resected. Rebleeding occurred in one case (2.3%). On T2-weighted imaging changes were seen in 11 cases (26.2%), in three (7.1%) of which neurological deterioration was correlated with imaging changes. In other cases these deficits were temporary.

Conclusions. The authors found that GKS was an effective treatment modality for cavernous hemangiomas, especially for those located within the brainstem, basal ganglia, or deep portions of the brain. It can reduce seizure frequency significantly although this takes time. In the group receiving a marginal dose below 15 Gy the patients fared better than when the dose exceeded 15 Gy.

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Neuromyelitis optica with brainstem lesion mistaken for brainstem glioma

Case report

Keun Young Park, Jung Yong Ahn, Jun Hyung Cho, Young Chul Choi, and Kyu Sung Lee

✓Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a severe demyelinating syndrome defined principally by its tendency to affect optic nerves and the spinal cord selectively. Asymptomatic brain lesions have recently become a common finding in NMO, and symptomatic brain lesions do not exclude the diagnosis of this entity. The authors describe the case of a 12-year-old girl suffering from an unusually atypical form of NMO in which a brainstem lesion was mistaken for a brainstem glioma. Brainstem involvement in NMO exhibits variable features on neuroimaging and is confused with brainstem glioma in cases of extensive brainstem involvement in childhood. Careful differential diagnosis and proper treatment are vital for a favorable prognosis.

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Distal posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm with basilar artery stenosis

Case illustration

Jung Yong Ahn, Young Sun Chung, and Byung-Hee Lee

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Aplasia of the cervical internal carotid artery and malformation of the circle of Willis associated with Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome

Case report

Steven J. Goldstein, Charles Lee, A. Byron Young, and George J. Guidry

✓ The authors describe the radiographic findings in a patient with Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome who also had aplasia of the left internal carotid artery and a very unusual malformation of the circle of Willis. This constellation of clinical and radiographic findings is unique and has not been previously reported in the medical literature.

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Primary intracranial ectopic craniopharyngioma in a patient with probable Gardner's syndrome

Case report

Myoung Soo Kim, You Sun Kim, Hye Kyung Lee, Ghi Jai Lee, Chan Young Choi, and Chae Heuck Lee

The authors describe a patient with an adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (CPG) arising in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA), who also had probable Gardner's syndrome. This 31-year-old man presented with headache and dizziness. Brain CT and MRI showed a 5 × 4–cm lesion with multiple small calcifications in the left CPA. The patient underwent suboccipital craniotomy with tumor removal. Histopathological findings indicated an adamantinomatous CPG. This patient also showed characteristics of Gardner's syndrome. Although this syndrome is associated with intracranial neoplasms, it is unclear whether patients with both Gardner's syndrome and CPG are part of the heterogeneity of Gardner's syndrome.

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Results of immunohistochemical staining for cell cycle regulators predict the recurrence of atypical meningiomas

Clinical article

Min Soo Kim, Kyu Hong Kim, Eun Hee Lee, Young Min Lee, Sung-Hun Lee, Hyung Dong Kim, and Young Zoon Kim

Object

The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of certain cell-cycle regulatory proteins in the recurrence of atypical meningiomas. These proteins were analyzed with immunohistochemical staining to identify predisposing factors for the recurrence of atypical meningiomas.

Methods

The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with atypical meningiomas diagnosed in the period from January 2000 to June 2012 at the Department of Neurosurgery at Samsung Changwon Hospital and Dong-A University Medical Center. Clinical data included patient sex and age at the time of surgery, presenting symptoms at diagnosis, location and size of tumor, extent of surgery, use of postoperative radiotherapy, duration of follow-up, and recurrence. Immunohistochemical staining for cell-cycle regulatory proteins (p16, p15, p21, p27, cyclin-dependent kinase [CDK] 4 and 6, phosphorylated retinoblastoma [pRB] protein, and cyclin D1) and proliferative markers (MIB-1 antigen, mitosis, and p53) was performed on archived paraffin-embedded tissues obtained during resection. The recurrence rate and time to recurrence were assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis.

Results

Of the 67 atypical meningiomas eligible for analysis, 26 (38.8%) recurred during the follow-up period (mean duration 47.7 months, range 8.4–132.1 months). Immunohistochemically, there was overstaining for p16 in 44 samples (65.7%), for p15 in 21 samples (31.3%), for p21 in 25 samples (37.3%), for p27 in 32 samples (47.8%), for CDK4 in 38 samples (56.7%), for CDK6 in 26 samples (38.8%), for pRB protein in 42 samples (62.7%), and for cyclin D1 in 49 samples (73.1%). Multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional-hazards regression model showed that incomplete resection (HR 4.513, p < 0.001); immunohistochemical understaining for p16 (HR 3.214, p < 0.001); immunohistochemical overstaining for CDK6 (HR 3.427, p < 0.001), pRB protein (HR 2.854, p = 0.008), and p53 (HR 2.296, p = 0.040); and increased MIB-1 labeling index (HR 2.665, p = 0.013) and mitotic index (HR 2.438, p = 0.024) predicted the recurrence of atypical meningiomas after resection.

Conclusions

Findings in this study indicated that p16, CDK6, and pRB protein were associated with the recurrence of atypical meningiomas.

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Neurotrophic factor in the treatment of Parkinson disease

Young Mi Yoo, Yong Jung Kim, Uhn Lee, Doo Jin Paik, Hyun Tae Yoo, Cheol Wan Park, Young Bo Kim, Sang Goo Lee, Woo Kyung Kim, and Chan Jong Yoo

Object

Parkinson disease (PD) is a well-known degenerative disease resulting in the depletion of dopamine-producing neurons in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra. Adenoviral vector delivery of neurotrophic factors may provide a potential therapy for PD. The authors examined whether glial cell line–derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) delivered via adenoviral vector (Ad-GDNF) could promote functional recovery in a rat model of PD. Additionally, they examined whether neural precursor cells (NPCs) provide the therapeutic potential of cultured neural cells for cell regeneration and replacement in PD.

Methods

All animals underwent stereotactic injection of 6-hydroxydopamine into the right substantia nigra. Eight weeks later, the rats were tested for apomorphine-induced rotational asymmetry and evaluation of explanted grafts infected with the complementary DNA for GDNF containing NPCs and NPCs alone. In the NPC cultures of embryonic rat striata, the authors found that basic fibroblast growth factor induced the proliferation of stem cells, which give rise to spheres of undifferentiated cells that generate neurons and glia.

Conclusions

In this study the authors found that the reduction of apomorphine-induced rotation was more prominent in parkinsonian rats that received Ad-GDNF-treated grafts containing NPCs (61%) than in those that received grafts of NPCs alone (16%).

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Juxtasellar hyperostosis of non-meningiomatous origin

K. Francis Lee, William H. Whiteley III, Norman J. Schatz, Jack Edeiken, Shu-ren Lin, and Fong-Young Tsai

✓ Seven patients are described who had juxtasellar hyperostosis with visual disturbance secondary to non-meningiomatous lesions. Two had chromophobe adenomas, one craniopharyngioma, one carcinoma of the sphenoid sinus, one a thrombosed aneurysm of the intracavernous portion of the internal carotid artery, one epidermoidoma of the orbit, and one chondroblastoma of the anterior clinoid process. The diagnosis of meningioma was entertained initially on the basis of hyperostosis plus visual impairment. Careful evaluation of hyperostosis is essential for correct diagnosis of meningioma, according to our experience. Suprasellar meningiomas almost invariably produce irregular hyperostosis of the planum sphenoidale, often associated with serration and blistering. Sphenoid meningioma, when it is sclerotic, always shows thickening or expansion of the sphenoid wings. Therefore, in the absence of typical meningiomatous hyperostosis, one can readily differentiate non-meningiomatous hyperostosis from true meningioma.