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Seung-Hoon Lim, Dae-Jean Jo, Sung-Min Kim, and Young-Jin Lim

Despite various complications associated with sacrectomy to remove sacral tumors, total or en bloc sacrectomy has been suggested as the most appropriate surgical treatment in such cases. The authors present the case of a 62-year-old male patient with intractable back pain and voiding difficulty whom they treated with posterior en bloc sacral hemiresection followed by reconstruction using dual U-shaped rods. They report that good spinopelvic stability was achieved without complications. The authors conclude that this technique is relatively simple compared with other sacral reconstructive techniques and can prevent complications, including herniation.

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Sang-Dae Kim, Je-On Park, Se-Hoon Kim, Young-Hen Lee, Dong-Jun Lim, and Jung-Yul Park

✓Spontaneous spinal subdural hematoma (SDH) is an uncommon cause of acute spinal cord compression. When it does occur, however, it may have disastrous results and a poor prognosis. The nontraumatic acute spinal SDH usually results from a defect in a hemostatic mechanism (such as coagulopathy or the use of anticoagulant therapy) or from iatrogenic causes (such as spinal puncture). Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a nonatherosclerotic systemic arteriopathy of unknown cause that typically affects the small and medium arteries in young to middle-aged women. The authors report on their experience with a patient with an acute spontaneous spinal SDH that occurred in conjunction with FMD.

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Dae Hee Han, Dong Gyu Kim, Je G. Chi, Sung Hye Park, Hee-Won Jung, and Young Gyu Kim

✓ The authors present the clinical, radiological, pathological features, and autopsy findings of a patient with malignant triton tumor of the acoustic nerve, which probably arose from a pre-existing acoustic schwannoma. The term “malignant triton tumor” is applied to malignant schwannomas with rhabdomyoblastic differentiation. A cerebellopontine angle tumor with spinal drop metastasis occurred in this patient 10 months after near-total removal of the original tumor.

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Keun Young Park, Dong Ik Kim, Byung Moon Kim, Hyo Suk Nam, Young Dae Kim, Ji Hoe Heo, and Dong Joon Kim

Object

Carotid artery stenting (CAS) can be an alternative option for carotid endarterectomy in the prevention of ischemic stroke caused by carotid artery stenosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of stent design on the incidence of procedural and postprocedural embolism associated with CAS treatment.

Methods

Ninety-six symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, consisting of 79 males and 17 females, with moderate to severe carotid artery stenosis and a mean age of 69.0 years were treated with CAS. The stent type (48 closed-cell and 48 open-cell stents) was randomly allocated before the procedure. Imaging, procedural, and clinical outcomes were assessed and compared. The symptomatic subgroup (76 patients) was also analyzed to determine the influence of stent design on outcome.

Results

New lesions on postprocedural diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) were significantly more frequent in the open-cell than in the closed-cell stent group (24 vs 12, respectively; p = 0.020). The 30-day clinical outcome was not different between the 2 stent groups. In the symptomatic patient group, stent design (p = 0.017, OR 4.173) and recent smoking history (p = 0.036, OR 4.755) were strong risk factors for new lesions on postprocedural DWI.

Conclusions

Stent design may have an influence on the risk of new embolism, and selecting the appropriate stent may improve outcome.

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Jang-Hyun Baek, Byung Moon Kim, Ji Hoe Heo, Dong Joon Kim, Hyo Suk Nam, Young Dae Kim, Hyun Seok Choi, Jun-Hwee Kim, and Jin Woo Kim

OBJECTIVE

Hyperattenuation on CT scanning performed immediately after endovascular treatment (EVT) is known to be associated with the final infarct. As flat-panel CT (FPCT) scanning is readily accessible within their angiography suite, the authors evaluated the ability of the extent of hyperattenuation on FPCT to predict clinical outcomes after EVT.

METHODS

Patients with successful recanalization (modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction grade 2b or 3) were reviewed retrospectively. The extent of hyperattenuation was assessed by the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score on FPCT (FPCT-ASPECTS). FPCT-ASPECTS findings were compared according to functional outcome and malignant infarction. The predictive power of the FPCT-ASPECTS with initial CT images before EVT (CT-ASPECTS) and follow-up diffusion-weighted images (MR-ASPECTS) was also compared.

RESULTS

A total of 235 patients were included. All patients were treated with mechanical thrombectomy, and 45.5% of the patients received intravenous tissue plasminogen activator. The mean (± SD) time from stroke onset to recanalization was 383 ± 290 minutes. The FPCT-ASPECTS was significantly different between patients with a favorable outcome and those without (mean 9.3 ± 0.9 vs 6.7 ± 2.6) and between patients with malignant infarction and those without (3.4 ± 2.9 vs 8.8 ± 1.4). The FPCT-ASPECTS was an independent factor for a favorable outcome (adjusted OR 3.28, 95% CI 2.12–5.01) and malignant infarction (adjusted OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.31–0.57). The area under the curve (AUC) of the FPCT-ASPECTS for a favorable outcome (0.862, cutoff ≥ 8) was significantly greater than that of the CT-ASPECTS (0.637) (p < 0.001) and comparable to that of the MR-ASPECTS (0.853) (p = 0.983). For malignant infarction, the FPCT-ASPECTS was also more predictive than the CT-ASPECTS (AUC 0.906 vs 0.552; p = 0.001) with a cutoff of ≤ 5.

CONCLUSIONS

The FPCT-ASPECTS was highly predictive of clinical outcomes in patients with successful recanalization. FPCT could be a practical method to immediately predict clinical outcomes and thereby aid in acute management after EVT.

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Dong-Hun Kang, Byung Moon Kim, Ji Hoe Heo, Hyo Suk Nam, Young Dae Kim, Yang-Ha Hwang, Yong-Won Kim, Yong-Sun Kim, Dong Joon Kim, Hyo Sung Kwak, Hong Gee Roh, Young-Jun Lee, and Sang Heum Kim

OBJECTIVE

The role of the balloon guide catheter (BGC) has not been evaluated in contact aspiration thrombectomy (CAT) for acute stroke. Here, the authors aimed to test whether the BGC was associated with recanalization success and good functional outcome in CAT.

METHODS

All patients who had undergone CAT as the first-line treatment for anterior circulation intracranial large vessel occlusion were retrospectively identified from prospectively maintained registries for six stroke centers. The patients were dichotomized into BGC utilization and nonutilization groups. Clinical findings, procedural details, and recanalization success rates were compared between the two groups. Whether the BGC was associated with recanalization success and functional outcome was assessed.

RESULTS

A total of 429 patients (mean age 68.4 ± 11.4 years; M/F ratio 215:214) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A BGC was used in 45.2% of patients. The overall recanalization and good outcome rates were 80.2% and 52.0%, respectively. Compared to the non-BGC group, the BGC group had a significantly reduced number of CAT passes (2.6 ± 1.6 vs 3.4 ± 1.5), shorter puncture-to-recanalization time (56 ± 27 vs 64 ± 35 minutes), lower need for the additional use of thrombolytics (1.0% vs 8.1%), and less embolization to a distal or different site (0.5% vs 3.4%). The BGC group showed significantly higher final (89.2% vs 72.8%) and first-pass (24.2% vs 8.1%) recanalization success rates. After adjustment for potentially associated factors, BGC utilization remained independently associated with recanalization (OR 4.171, 95% CI 1.523–11.420) and good functional outcome (OR 2.103, 95% CI 1.225–3.612).

CONCLUSIONS

BGC utilization significantly increased the final and first-pass recanalization rates and remained independently associated with recanalization success and good functional outcome.

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Yong Hun Pee, Ki Joon Kim, Young-Geun Choi, Sang Hyeop Jeon, Jong Dae Park, and Sang-Ho Lee

✓ In this report, the authors present the case of patient with a lymphocele in the retroperitoneal area following anterior lumbar interbody fusion at L4–5. A lymphocele is a rare complication of spinal operations, especially lower lumbar spinal surgeries. The authors discuss this complicating factor and describe its features and treatments.

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Jin Pyeong Jeon, Jeong Eun Kim, Jun Hyong Ahn, Won-Sang Cho, Young Dae Cho, Young-Je Son, Jae Seung Bang, Hyun-Seung Kang, Chul-Ho Sohn, Hyun-Tai Chung, Chang Wan Oh, and Dong Gyu Kim

OBJECT

Treatment strategies for venous-predominant arteriovenous malformation (vp-AVM) remain unclear due to the limited number of cases and a lack of long-term outcomes. The purpose of this study was to report the authors’ experience with treatment outcomes with a review of the pertinent literature in patients with vp-AVM.

METHODS

Medical and radiological data from 1998 to 2011 were retrospectively evaluated. The degree of the arteriovenous (AV) shunt was categorized into 2 groups, a high- and low-flow AV shunt based on the angiographic findings.

RESULTS

Sixteen patients with a mean age of 45.3 years (range 16–78 years) and a mean follow-up of 79.9 months (range 25–264 months) were examined. Symptomatic lesions were noted in 13 patients: intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in 9, seizure in 1, and headache in 3. A high-flow shunt was observed on angiography in 13 patients. Among these 13 patients, 12 patients were symptomatic. Nine patients presenting with ICH underwent hematoma removal with additional Gamma Knife surgery (GKS; n = 4), GKS only (n = 2), or conservative treatment (n = 3). The 3 asymptomatic patients received conservative treatment, and 1 rebleeding episode was observed. Seven of 8 patients who underwent GKS as an initial or secondary treatment modality experienced a marked reduction in the AV shunt on follow-up angiography, but complete obliteration was not observed.

CONCLUSIONS

Poor lesion localization makes a vp-AVM challenging to treat. Symptomatic patients with a high-flow shunt are supposedly best treated with GKS, despite the fact that only 87.5% of the vp-AVMs treated this way showed a reduction in the malformation volume, and none were cured.

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Min Young Kim, Ji Hyeon Park, Na Ree Kang, Hye Ryoun Jang, Jung Eun Lee, Wooseong Huh, Yoon-Goo Kim, Dae Joong Kim, Seung-Chyul Hong, Jong-Soo Kim, and Ha Young Oh

Object

Mannitol, an osmotic agent used to decrease intracranial pressure, can cause acute kidney injury (AKI). The objectives of this study were to assess the impact of mannitol on the incidence and severity of AKI and to identify risk factors and outcome for AKI in patients with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH).

Methods

The authors retrospectively evaluated 153 adult patients who received mannitol infusion after ICH between January 2005 and December 2009 in the neurosurgical intensive care unit. Multivariate analysis was used to evaluate the risk factors for AKI after ICH. Based on the odds ratio, weighted scores were assigned to predictors of AKI.

Results

The overall incidence of AKI among study participants was 10.5% (n = 16). Acute kidney injury occurred more frequently in patients who received mannitol infusion at a rate ≥ 1.34 g/kg/day than it did in patients who received mannitol infusion at a rate < 1.34 g/kg/day. A higher mannitol infusion rate was associated with more severe AKI. Independent risk factors for AKI were mannitol infusion rate ≥ 1.34 g/kg/day, age ≥ 70 years, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 110 mm Hg, and glomerular filtration rate < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2. The authors developed a risk model for AKI, wherein patients with a higher risk score showed a graded association with a higher incidence of AKI.

Conclusions

The incidence of AKI following mannitol infusion in patients with ICH was 10.5%. A higher mannitol infusion rate was associated with more frequent and more severe AKI. Additionally, age ≥ 70 years, DBP ≥ 110 mm Hg, and established renal dysfunction before starting mannitol therapy were associated with development of AKI.

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Dong Hyun Yoo, Chul-Ho Sohn, Young Dae Cho, Hyun-Seung Kang, Chul-Kee Park, Jin Wook Kim, and Jae Hyoung Kim

OBJECTIVE

Superselective pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling (ss-pCASL) is an MRI technique in which individual vessels are labeled to trace their perfusion territories. In this study, the authors assessed its merit in defining feeding vessels and gauging preoperative embolization feasibility for patients with meningioma, using digital subtraction angiography (DSA) as the reference method.

METHODS

Thirty-one consecutive patients with meningiomas were prospectively recruited, each undergoing DSA (and embolization, if feasible) before resection. All ss-pCASL imaging studies were performed 1 day prior to DSA. Two neuroradiologists independently reviewed ss-pCASL images, rating the contribution of each labeled vessel to tumor blood supply as none, minor, or major. Two neuroradiologists also gauged the feasibility of embolization in each patient, based on ss-pCASL images. Interobserver and intermodality agreement were determined using Cohen’s kappa statistic. The diagnostic performance of ss-pCASL was assessed in terms of discerning tumor blood supply and the potential for embolization.

RESULTS

Interobserver agreement in the rating of blood supply by ss-pCASL was very good (κ = 0.817, 95% CI 0.771–0.863), and intermodality agreement (consensus ss-pCASL readings vs DSA findings) was good (κ = 0.688, 95% CI 0.632–0.744). In delineating tumor blood supply, ss-pCASL showed high sensitivity (87.1%) and specificity (87.2%). The positive and negative predictive values for embolization feasibility were 85.2% and 100%, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

In patients with meningiomas, feeding vessels are reliably predicted by ss-pCASL. This noninvasive approach, involving no iodinated contrast or radiation exposure, is particularly beneficial if there are no prospects of embolization.