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In Bok Chang, Byung Moon Cho, Se Hyuck Park, Dae Young Yoon and Sae Moon Oh

✓The authors report on a case of a metastatic choriocarcinoma that mimicked systemic necrotizing vasculitis on a cerebral angiogram. A 35-year-old woman presented with right hemiplegia and a drowsy mental state. A computed tomography (CT) scan revealed an intracerebral hemorrhage in the left frontal region. A cerebral angiogram showed multiple microaneurysms arising from the bilateral anterior cerebral arteries and middle cerebral arteries, and the renal angiogram showed multiple microaneurysms arising from the left distal renal artery. A chest CT scan revealed multiple metastatic lesions in the left lower lung field. The hematoma and microaneurysms were surgically removed. Choriocarcinoma was diagnosed after histological examination. Despite receiving postoperative chemotherapy, the patient died 1 month after the operation.

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So-Hyang Im, Chang Wan Oh, O-Ki Kwon, Byung-Kyu Cho, Young-Seob Chung and Dae Hee Han

Object. Involuntary movement is an uncommon manifestation of a transient ischemic attack. It may be induced by cerebral hemodynamic insufficiency, which is associated with several cerebral ischemic diseases. The authors present three cases of limb shaking due to moyamoya disease (MMD) or radiation-induced middle cerebral artery stenosis, and three additional cases of choreic movement due to MMD. Neuroimaging studies and surgical outcomes in these patients were retrospectively analyzed to investigate the pathological mechanism underlying the symptoms and to provide guidance for the management of involuntary movement disorders in cases of ischemic cerebral disease.

Methods. The patient population included two children and four adults with ages at presentation ranging between 7 and 50 years. The initial presenting symptoms were involuntary movements in all six cases. A magnetic resonance imaging finding common in all cases was a small infarct in the frontal corona radiata, which did not extend to the cortex or basal ganglia. A perfusion defect in the frontoparietal cortical and subcortical regions was demonstrated by singlephoton emission computerized tomography in all patients. Improved hemodynamic circulation in the frontoparietal cortical and subcortical regions occurred in parallel with clinical improvement following indirect or direct bypass surgery.

Conclusions. Ischemic dysfunction of the frontal cortical and subcortical motor pathways rather than that of the basal ganglia was suspected to be the cause of the observed contralateral involuntary movements. Direct and indirect bypass surgery can be used effectively to treat involuntary movements in patients with cerebral ischemic diseases such as MMD and in those with stenosis of an intracranial major artery.

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Jin Pyeong Jeon, Jeong Eun Kim, Jun Hyong Ahn, Won-Sang Cho, Young Dae Cho, Young-Je Son, Jae Seung Bang, Hyun-Seung Kang, Chul-Ho Sohn, Hyun-Tai Chung, Chang Wan Oh and Dong Gyu Kim

OBJECT

Treatment strategies for venous-predominant arteriovenous malformation (vp-AVM) remain unclear due to the limited number of cases and a lack of long-term outcomes. The purpose of this study was to report the authors’ experience with treatment outcomes with a review of the pertinent literature in patients with vp-AVM.

METHODS

Medical and radiological data from 1998 to 2011 were retrospectively evaluated. The degree of the arteriovenous (AV) shunt was categorized into 2 groups, a high- and low-flow AV shunt based on the angiographic findings.

RESULTS

Sixteen patients with a mean age of 45.3 years (range 16–78 years) and a mean follow-up of 79.9 months (range 25–264 months) were examined. Symptomatic lesions were noted in 13 patients: intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in 9, seizure in 1, and headache in 3. A high-flow shunt was observed on angiography in 13 patients. Among these 13 patients, 12 patients were symptomatic. Nine patients presenting with ICH underwent hematoma removal with additional Gamma Knife surgery (GKS; n = 4), GKS only (n = 2), or conservative treatment (n = 3). The 3 asymptomatic patients received conservative treatment, and 1 rebleeding episode was observed. Seven of 8 patients who underwent GKS as an initial or secondary treatment modality experienced a marked reduction in the AV shunt on follow-up angiography, but complete obliteration was not observed.

CONCLUSIONS

Poor lesion localization makes a vp-AVM challenging to treat. Symptomatic patients with a high-flow shunt are supposedly best treated with GKS, despite the fact that only 87.5% of the vp-AVMs treated this way showed a reduction in the malformation volume, and none were cured.

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Eung Koo Yeon, Young Dae Cho, Dong Hyun Yoo, Su Hwan Lee, Hyun-Seung Kang, Jeong Eun Kim, Won-Sang Cho, Hyun Ho Choi and Moon Hee Han

OBJECTIVE

The authors conducted a study to ascertain the long-term durability of coiled aneurysms completely occluded at 36 months’ follow-up given the potential for delayed recanalization.

METHODS

In this retrospective review, the authors examined 299 patients with 339 aneurysms, all shown to be completely occluded at 36 months on follow-up images obtained between 2011 and 2013. Medical records and radiological data acquired during the extended monitoring period (mean 74.3 ± 22.5 months) were retrieved, and the authors analyzed the incidence of (including mean annual risk) and risk factors for delayed recanalization.

RESULTS

A total of 5 coiled aneurysms (1.5%) occluded completely at 36 months showed recanalization (0.46% per aneurysm-year) during the long-term surveillance period (1081.9 aneurysm-years), 2 surfacing within 60 months and 3 developing thereafter. Four showed minor recanalization, with only one instance of major recanalization. The latter involved the posterior communicating artery as an apparent de novo lesion, arising at the neck of a firmly coiled sac, and was unrelated to coil compaction or growth. Additional embolization was undertaken. In a multivariate analysis, a second embolization for a recurrent aneurysm (HR = 22.088, p = 0.003) independently correlated with delayed recanalization.

CONCLUSIONS

Almost all coiled aneurysms (98.5%) showing complete occlusion at 36 months postembolization proved to be stable during extended observation. However, recurrent aneurysms were predisposed to delayed recanalization. Given the low probability yet seriousness of delayed recanalization and the possibility of de novo aneurysm formation, careful monitoring may be still considered in this setting but at less frequent intervals beyond 36 months.

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Hyun Ho Choi, Young Dae Cho, Dong Hyun Yoo, Su Hwan Lee, Eung Koo Yeon, Hyun-Seung Kang, Won-Sang Cho, Jeong Eun Kim and Moon Hee Han

OBJECTIVE

In the presence of symmetric A1 flow, the safety and efficacy of compromising the anterior communicating artery (ACoA) during coil embolization of ACoA aneurysms has yet to be evaluated. Herein, the authors describe their experience, focusing on procedural safety.

METHODS

Between October 2012 and July 2017, 285 ACoA aneurysms with symmetric A1 flows were treated at the authors’ institution by endovascular coil embolization. Clinical and angiographic outcome data were subjected to binary logistic regression analysis.

RESULTS

ACoA compromise was chosen in the treatment of 71 aneurysms (24.9%), which were completely (n = 15) or incompletely (n = 56) compromised. In the remaining 214 lesions, the ACoA was preserved. Although 9 patients (3.2%) experienced procedure-related thromboembolisms (compromised, 4; preserved, 5), all but 1 patient (with ACoA compromise) were asymptomatic. In multivariate analysis, subarachnoid hemorrhage at presentation was the sole independent risk factor for thromboembolism (OR 15.98, p < 0.01), with ACoA compromise being statistically unrelated. In 276 aneurysms (96.8%) with follow-up of > 6 months (mean 20.9 ± 13.1 months, range 6–54 months), recanalization was confirmed in 21 (minor, 15; major, 6). A narrow (≤ 4 mm) saccular neck (p < 0.01) and ACoA compromise (p = 0.04) were independently linked to prevention of recanalization.

CONCLUSIONS

During coil embolization of ACoA aneurysms, the ACoA may be compromised without serious complications if A1 flows are symmetric. This approach may also confer some long-term protection from recanalization, serving as a valid treatment option for such lesions.

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Yong-Jun Cho, Chi Hern Lee, Dae Won Kim, Ki-Yeon Yoo, Won Sik Eum, Min Jea Shin, Hyo Sang Jo, Jinseu Park, Kyu Hyung Han, Keun Wook Lee and Soo Young Choi

The authors investigated the effects of a silk solution against laminectomy-induced dural adhesion formation and inflammation in a rat model. They found that it significantly reduced postlaminectomy dural adhesion formation and inflammation. Dural adhesion formation, thought to be an inevitable consequence of laminectomy, is one of the most common complications following spinal surgery, and the authors' results indicate that the silk solution might be a potential novel therapeutic agent for dural adhesion formation.

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Hyunwook Kwon, Dae Hyuk Moon, Youngjin Han, Jong-Young Lee, Sun U Kwon, Dong-Wha Kang, Suk Jung Choo, Tae-Won Kwon, Min-Ju Kim and Yong-Pil Cho

OBJECTIVE

Controversy persists regarding the optimal management of subclinical coronary artery disease (CAD) prior to carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and the impact of CAD on clinical outcomes after CEA. This study aimed to evaluate the short-term surgical risks and long-term outcomes of patients with subclinical CAD who underwent CEA.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective study of data from a prospective CEA registry. They analyzed a total of 702 cases involving patients without a history of CAD who received preoperative cardiac risk assessment by radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and underwent CEA over a 10-year period. The management strategy (the necessity, sequence, and treatment modality of coronary revascularization and optimal perioperative medical treatment) was determined according to the presence, severity, and extent of CAD as determined by preoperative MPI and additional coronary computed tomography angiography and/or coronary angiography. Perioperative cardiac damage was defined on the basis of postoperative elevation of the blood level of cardiac troponin I (0.05–0.5 ng/ml) in the absence of myocardial ischemia. The primary endpoint was the composite of any stroke, myocardial infarction, or death during the perioperative period and all-cause mortality within 4 years of CEA. The associations between clinical outcomes after CEA and subclinical CAD were analyzed.

RESULTS

Concomitant subclinical CAD was observed in 81 patients (11.5%). These patients did have a higher incidence of perioperative cardiac damage (13.6% vs 0.5%, p < 0.01), but they had similar primary endpoint incidences during the perioperative period (2.5% vs.1.8%, p = 0.65) and similar estimated 4-year primary endpoint rates (13.6% vs 12.4%, p = 0.76) as the patients without subclinical CAD. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the 2 groups had similar rates of overall survival (p = 0.75).

CONCLUSIONS

Patients with subclinical CAD can undergo CEA with acceptable short- and long-term outcomes provided they receive selective coronary revascularization and optimal perioperative medical treatment.

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Roh-Eul Yoo, Tae Jin Yun, Young Dae Cho, Jung Hyo Rhim, Koung Mi Kang, Seung Hong Choi, Ji-hoon Kim, Jeong Eun Kim, Hyun-Seung Kang, Chul-Ho Sohn, Sun-Won Park and Moon Hee Han

OBJECTIVE

Arterial spin labeling perfusion-weighted imaging (ASL-PWI) enables quantification of tissue perfusion without contrast media administration. The aim of this study was to explore whether cerebral blood flow (CBF) from ASL-PWI can reliably predict angiographic vascularity of meningiomas.

METHODS

Twenty-seven patients with intracranial meningiomas, who had undergone preoperative ASL-PWI and digital subtraction angiography prior to resection, were included. Angiographic vascularity was assessed using a 4-point grading scale and meningiomas were classified into 2 groups: low vascularity (Grades 0 and 1; n = 11) and high vascularity (Grades 2 and 3; n = 16). Absolute CBF, measured at the largest section of the tumor, was normalized to the contralateral gray matter. Correlation between the mean normalized CBF (nCBF) and angiographic vascularity was determined and the mean nCBF values of the 2 groups were compared. Diagnostic performance of the nCBF for differentiating between the 2 groups was assessed.

RESULTS

The nCBF had a significant positive correlation with angiographic vascularity (ρ = 0.718; p < 0.001). The high-vascularity group had a significantly higher nCBF than the low-vascularity group (3.334 ± 2.768 and 0.909 ± 0.468, respectively; p = 0.003). At the optimal nCBF cutoff value of 1.733, sensitivity and specificity for the differential diagnosis of the 2 groups were 69% (95% CI 41%–89%) and 100% (95% CI 72%–100%), respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.875 (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

ASL-PWI may provide a reliable and noninvasive means of predicting angiographic vascularity of meningiomas. It may thus assist in selecting potential candidates for preoperative digital subtraction angiography and embolization in clinical practice.

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Dae Won Kim, Won Sik Eum, Sang Ho Jang, Jinseu Park, Dong-Hwa Heo, Seung-Hoon Sheen, Hae-Ran Lee, Haeyong Kweon, Seok-Woo Kang, Kwang-Gill Lee, Se Youn Cho, Hyoung-Joon Jin, Yong-Jun Cho and Soo Young Choi

Object

To improve the safety of dura repair in neurosurgical procedures, a new dural material derived from silk fibroin was evaluated in a rat model with a dura mater injury.

Methods

The authors prepared new, transparent, artificial dura mater material using silk fibroin from the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The cytotoxic and antiinflammatory effects of the artificial dura mater were examined in vitro and in vivo by histological examination, western blotting, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses.

Results

The novel artificial dura mater was not cytotoxic. However, it efficiently reduced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression as well as the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor–α. Cerebrospinal fluid leakage did not occur after repair of the brain of craniotomized rats with the artificial dura mater material.

Conclusions

The new artificial dura mater described in this study appears to be safe for application in neurosurgical procedures and can efficiently inhibit inflammation without side effects or CSF leakage. Although the long-term effects of this artificial dura mater material need to be validated in larger animals, the results from this study indicate that it is suitable for application in neurosurgery.