Yosuke Miyairi, Tsuyoshi Tada, Yuichiro Tanaka, Kazuhiro Hongo and Shigeaki Kobayashi
Tetsuya Goto, Kazuhiro Hongo, Yukinari Kakizawa, Hisashi Muraoka, Yosuke Miyairi, Yuichiro Tanaka and Shigeaki Kobayashi
✓ The NeuRobot is a telecontrolled microscopic micromanipulator system designed for neurosurgical procedures. The unit houses a three-dimensional endoscope and three robot arms that the surgeon operates without direct contact with the patient. The authors have successfully performed robotics-assisted neurosurgical procedures by using the NeuRobot in a 54-year-old man who had a recurrent atypical meningioma. Following the usual preparation of craniotomy and opening of the dura mater, a portion of the tumor was removed using the NeuRobot with the aid of microscopic observation. No complication related to the use of the NeuRobot was encountered and the patient's postoperative course was uneventful. Although various kinds of robots have been developed for use in neurosurgery in recent years, a robotic telemanipulation system capable of performing several surgical tasks has not previously been introduced to clinical neurosurgery. This is the first case report in which neurosurgical manipulation by a robotics system is described.
Yukinari Kakizawa, Kazuhiro Hongo, Hisayoshi Takasawa, Yosuke Miyairi, Atsushi Sato, Yuichiro Tanaka and Shigeaki Kobayashi
✓ Three-dimensional (3D) neuroimages are generally considered useful for neurosurgical practice. Nevertheless, neuroimaging modalities such as 3D digital subtraction angiography and 3D computerized tomography angiography are still insufficient because the resulting images fail to delineate neural structures. Complex neurosurgical procedures are mostly performed in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space of the basal cistern, where vessels and neural structures are present along with the lesion. The magnetic resonance (MR) imaging—derived 3D constructive interference in steady-state (CISS) imaging displays the margin between the CSF and neural structures, vessels, and dura mater in detail, in a two-dimensional fashion. The authors know that volume-rendered 3D CISS images would be more useful for surgery than conventional ones. Although the usefulness of “virtual MR image endoscopy” was reported previously, the endoscopic view is different from the operative field because of the perspective being emphasized. Therefore, to simulate surgical views, the authors made 3D neuroimages from a 3D CISS MR sequence by using an advanced computer workstation. After generating volume images, a cutting method was used in the desired plane to visualize the lesion with reference to a multiplanar reformatted image. The authors call these “real” 3D CISS images, and they are more comparable to the operative field. This newly developed method of producing a real 3D CISS image was used in 30 cases and contributed to the understanding of the relationship between a lesion and surrounding structures before attempting neurosurgical procedures, with minimal invasiveness to the patient.
Masanori Sato, Noriko Kubota, Yoshihiko Katsuyama, Yota Suzuki, Yosuke Miyairi, Kisei Minami and Masashi Kasai
Mycoplasma hominis is a rare causative pathogen for surgical site infections after neurosurgical procedures. This organism lacks a cell wall, rendering it undetectable by Gram staining and making it resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics. In addition, some special techniques are required to identify this organism. Thus, it is very difficult to diagnose infections caused by this pathogen. Here, the authors report a pediatric case of M. hominis ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) infection with central nervous system involvement for which beta-lactam antibiotics were not effective and Gram staining revealed no pathogens. Because few cases have been described that involve the treatment of M. hominis infection after neurosurgery, in this case the patient's serum and CSF were monitored for antibiotic drug concentrations. Successful treatment of the infection was achieved after approximately 6 weeks of administration of clindamycin and ciprofloxacin antibiotics in addition to external ventricular drain revision and subsequent VPS replacement. When beta-lactam antibiotics are ineffective and when Gram staining cannot detect the responsible pathogens, it is important to consider M. hominis as the atypical pathogen.