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  • Author or Editor: Yoshiki Arakawa x
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Yasuhiro Kawabata, Jun A. Takahashi, Yoshiki Arakawa and Nobuo Hashimoto

Object

The prognostic significance of tumor grade and resection and the efficacy of prophylactic radiation remain controversial in the management of intracranial ependymoma. The outcomes in patients with intracranial ependymoma treated at the Kyoto University Hospital were reviewed retrospectively, and prognostic significance was analyzed.

Methods

Between 1972 and 2002, 29 patients were seen at the authors' institution. Eighteen cases involved a Grade II lesion according to the World Health Organization classification of ependymoma and 11 involved a Grade III lesion. Postoperative radiation was applied in 24 cases and chemotherapy was administered in nine. Overall survival and progression-free survival rates were significantly higher in patients with Grade II ependymoma (p = 0.006 and 0.004, respectively) and in patients who had undergone gross-total resection of the tumor (p = 0.002 and 0.04, respectively). Fourteen patients relapsed from 10 to 120 months (median 39 months) after diagnosis. In nine patients the ependymoma recurred only at the original tumor site. Three patients experienced both local and distant relapse, whereas two others had only a distant relapse. All relapses of the Grade II ependymoma initially occurred at the primary tumor site. Histological grade and extent of resection were significantly associated with tumor dissemination (p = 0.0034 and 0.0011, respectively). The field of postoperative radiation had no impact on patient survival or lesion recurrence.

Conclusions

Tumor grade and resection are the two important prognostic factors with respect to patient survival, tumor recurrence, and tumor dissemination. Considering that relapses were predominantly local and that there was no apparent benefit from prophylactic radiation, the authors concluded that postoperative radiation should be focused on local control, especially for Grade II ependymomas.

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Ken-ichiro Kikuta, Yasushi Takagi, Yoshiki Arakawa, Susumu Miyamoto and Nobuo Hashimoto

✓ The authors present the case of a 6-year-old girl with typical absence epilepsy induced by hyperventilation associated with moyamoya disease (MMD). A diffuse 3-Hz spike-and-wave complex induced by hyperventilation was apparent on an electroencephalogram, and her seizures were intractable to medication. Significant ischemia in the bilateral frontal lobes was present. The epilepsy disappeared after superficial temporal artery–middle cerebral artery anastomosis with encephalomyosynangiosis on both sides. In the treatment of children with intractable absence epilepsy, the possibility of underlying MMD and indications that revascularization surgery may be needed should be taken into consideration.

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Daiki Murata, Yohei Mineharu, Yoshiki Arakawa, Bin Liu, Masahiro Tanji, Makoto Yamaguchi, Ko-ichi Fujimoto, Nobuyuki Fukui, Yukinori Terada, Ryuta Yokogawa, Maki Yamaguchi, Sachiko Minamiguchi and Susumu Miyamoto

OBJECTIVE

Medulloblastoma is a type of malignant tumor arising in the cerebellum. The clinical importance of programmed cell death 1 ligand–1 (PD-L1) expression in medulloblastoma remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to examine the expression of PD-L1 and tumor-infiltrating T cells, and to evaluate their relationships to the prognosis of patients with medulloblastoma.

METHODS

The authors immunohistochemically analyzed PD-L1 expression and CD3+ and CD8+ lymphocyte infiltrations in tumor specimens from 16 patients with medulloblastoma.

RESULTS

High expression of PD-L1 was observed in 9 (56.3%) of 16 samples studied. High expression of PD-L1 was associated with low infiltrations of CD3+ or CD8+ lymphocytes. Patients with high expression of PD-L1 had shorter progression-free survival and overall survival times than those with low expression (p = 0.076 and p = 0.099, respectively). In addition, patients with high expression of PD-L1 and with low infiltration of CD8+ lymphocytes had a significantly worse outcome, with a 5-year survival rate of 15%, as compared with the other patients, who had a 5-year survival rate of nearly 90% (p = 0.0048 for progression-free survival and p = 0.010 for overall survival).

CONCLUSIONS

These findings indicate that PD-L1 expression was associated with a reduced infiltration of CD8+ T cells and poor prognosis in human medulloblastoma.

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Kai Yamasaki, Chikako Kiyotani, Keita Terashima, Yuko Watanabe, Masayuki Kanamori, Yuhki Koga, Nobuhiro Hata, Fuminori Iwasaki, Hiroaki Goto, Katsuyoshi Koh, Jun Kurihara, Shinya Tokunaga, Yoshiki Arakawa, Daiichiro Hasegawa, Yoshiyuki Kosaka and Junichi Hara

OBJECTIVE

The prognosis of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs) has improved in recent years with the use of multimodal therapy, mainly in cases not involving metastatic disease. The authors wanted to obtain historical control data and evaluate the suitable treatments in Japanese children with ATRTs that were proven negative for INI-1 immunostaining.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively collected clinical information on 38 pediatric patients with ATRTs treated from 2005 to 2016 and analyzed the data for this series.

RESULTS

The median age of the patient population was 1.3 years, and the male/female ratio was approximately 2:1. Twenty-three patients (60.5%) had metastases. The effects of treatment on prognosis were analyzed for 34 patients after exclusion of 4 patients who could not receive curative treatment. At a median follow-up of 40.9 months, the mean (± SD) progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 66.6% ± 8.3% and 45.9% ± 8.7% at 2 years and 44.2% ± 9.9% and 34.2% ± 8.9% at 5 years, respectively. The metastasis stage at diagnosis (M0–1 vs M2–4) (HR 2.68, 95% CI 1.08–6.65; p = 0.0338) and gross tumor resection (yes vs no) (HR 3.49, 95% CI 1.01–12.1; p = 0.0481) were prognostic factors for PFS but not for OS. Postoperative chemotherapy was performed in all 34 cases. High-dose chemotherapy was performed in 19 (55.8%) of 34 patients and showed a positive impact on OS (HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.11–0.86; p = 0.0254); the most commonly used regimen was a double-conditioning regimen of thiotepa plus melphalan. Local radiotherapy had a positive impact on both PFS and OS; however, craniospinal irradiation (CSI) performed in 12 patients as the primary therapy was associated with a poor outcome. Disseminated recurrence within 12 months from diagnosis was the most common pattern of treatment failure regardless of CSI.

CONCLUSIONS

There has been an improvement in outcomes for pediatric ATRT patients since the introduction of multimodal therapy in Japan, mainly in patients without metastases. Even if selection bias is taken into consideration, CSI did not contribute to an improved prognosis. Novel treatment approaches are required for pediatric ATRT patients with metastases.