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Helmut Bertalanffy, Shinya Ichimura, Souvik Kar, Yoshihito Tsuji, and Caiquan Huang

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to analyze the differences between posterolateral and posteromedial approaches to pontine cavernous malformations (PCMs) in order to verify the hypothesis that a posterolateral approach is more favorable with regard to preservation of abducens and facial nerve function.

METHODS

The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of 135 consecutive patients who underwent microsurgical resection of a PCM. The vascular lesions were first classified in a blinded fashion into 4 categories according to the possible or only reasonable surgical access route. In a second step, the lesions were assessed according to which approach was performed and different patient groups and subgroups were determined. In a third step, the modified Rankin Scale score and the rates of permanent postoperative abducens and facial nerve palsies were assessed.

RESULTS

The largest group in this series comprised 77 patients. Their pontine lesion was eligible for resection from either a posterolateral or posteromedial approach, in contrast to the remaining 3 patient groups in which the lesion location already had dictated a specific surgical approach. Fifty-four of these 77 individuals underwent surgery via a posterolateral approach and 23 via a posteromedial approach. When comparing these 2 patient subgroups, there was a statistically significant difference between postoperative rates of permanent abducens (3.7% vs 21.7%) and facial (1.9% vs 21.7%) nerve palsies. In the entire patient population, the abducens and facial nerve deficit rates were 5.9% and 5.2%, respectively, and the modified Rankin Scale score significantly decreased from 1.6 ± 1.1 preoperatively to 1.0 ± 1.1 at follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors' results suggest favoring a posterolateral over a posteromedial access route to PCMs in patients in whom a lesion is encountered that can be removed via either surgical approach. In the present series, the authors have found such a constellation in 57% of all patients. This retrospective analysis confirms their hypothesis in a large patient cohort. Additionally, the authors demonstrated that 4 types of PCMs can be distinguished by preoperatively evaluating whether only one reasonable or two alternative surgical approaches are available to access a specific lesion. The rates of postoperative sixth and seventh nerve palsies in this series are substantially lower than those in the majority of other published reports.

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Yoji Tamura, Toshihiko Kuroiwa, Yoshinaga Kajimoto, Yoshihito Miki, Shin-Ichi Miyatake, and Masao Tsuji

✓Several neurosurgical studies have provided descriptions of the utility of fluorescence-guided tumor resection using a microscope. However, fluorescence-guided endoscopic detection of a deep-seated brain tumor has not yet been reported. The authors report their experience with an endoscopic biopsy procedure for a malignant glioma within the third ventricle using a 5–aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)–induced protoporphyrin IX fluorescence imaging system. A 5-ALA–induced fluorescence image of an intraventricular tumor is barely visible with the typical fluorescence endoscopic system used in other clinical fields because the intensity of excitation light at wavelengths of 390 to 405 nm through a cutoff filter is too weak to delineate a brain tumor.

The technique described in this study made use of a laser illumination system with a high-powered output that delivered a violet-blue light at wavelengths of 405 nm. In addition, a common ultraviolet cutoff filter was fitted between the endoscope and the high-sensitivity camera to block the backscattered excitation light. A 5-ALA–induced fluorescence endoscopy performed using this system allowed the intraventricular tumor to be clearly visualized as a red fluorescent lesion. Several biopsy specimens obtained from the fluorescent lesion provided a definitive histological diagnosis. The results indicate that this endoscopic system is useful in detecting an intraventricular fluorescent tumor.

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Masaomi Koyanagi, Hitoshi Fukuda, Masaaki Saiki, Yoshihito Tsuji, Benjamin Lo, Toshinari Kawasaki, Yoshihiko Ioroi, Ryu Fukumitsu, Ryota Ishibashi, Masashi Oda, Osamu Narumi, Masaki Chin, Sen Yamagata, and Susumu Miyamoto

OBJECTIVE

Shunt-dependent hydrocephalus (SDHC) may arise after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) as CSF resorptive mechanisms are disrupted. Using propensity score analysis, the authors aimed to investigate which treatment modality, surgical clipping or endovascular treatment, is superior in reducing rates of SDHC after aSAH.

METHODS

The authors’ multicenter SAH database, comprising 3 stroke centers affiliated with Kyoto University, Japan, was used to identify patients treated between January 2009 and July 2016. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to characterize risk factors for SDHC after aSAH. A propensity score model was generated for both treatment groups, incorporating relevant patient covariates to detect any superiority for prevention of SDHC after aSAH.

RESULTS

A total of 566 patients were enrolled in this study. SDHC developed in 127 patients (22%). On multivariate analysis, age older than 53 years, the presence of intraventricular hematoma, and surgical clipping as opposed to endovascular coiling were independently associated with SDHC after aSAH. After propensity score matching, 136 patients treated with surgical clipping and 136 with endovascular treatment were matched. Propensity score–matched cohorts exhibited a significantly lower incidence of SDHC after endovascular treatment than after surgical clipping (16% vs 30%, p = 0.009; OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2–4.2). SDHC was independently associated with poor neurological outcomes (modified Rankin Scale score 3–6) at discharge (OR 4.3, 95% CI 2.6–7.3; p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

SDHC after aSAH occurred significantly more frequently in patients who underwent surgical clipping. Strategies for treatment of ruptured aneurysms should be used to mitigate SDHC and minimize poor outcomes.