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Yuhei Yoshimoto, Katsumi Hoya, Yoshihiro Tanaka and Takanori Uchida

Object. Little is understood about the clinical manifestations of basilar artery (BA) dissections, which can present with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), brainstem compression, or ischemia. In any instance, the prognosis seems poorer than that for vertebral artery (VA) dissection. The authors analyzed clinical presentations and radiological features of BA dissection with and without rupture.

Methods. Between 1998 and 2003, the authors treated 10 patients (eight men and two women, ranging in age from 32–78 years; mean age 54 years) with BA dissection. Diagnosis was based on clinical and radiological findings, including those from magnetic resonance imaging and cerebral angiography studies.

Of the 10 patients, five had impaired consciousness at disease onset. Among four patients presenting with SAH, two were treated conservatively and had fair outcomes without recurrent hemorrhage. The other two patients with SAH were treated using unilateral endovascular VA occlusion, but one of them subsequently suffered fatal rebleeding. A fifth patient presented with progressive signs of a mass involving the brainstem, whereas the remaining five patients showed brainstem ischemia; all were treated conservatively. Four patients could not return to their previous daily activities.

Conclusions. Basilar artery dissections are rare lesions associated with significant morbidity and death. The natural course of and the treatment options for BA dissection differ considerably from those for VA dissections. Management of these lesions is controversial and difficult, and requires particular care.

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Ryuta Nakae, Masaya Nagaishi, Yosuke Kawamura, Yoshihiro Tanaka, Akio Hyodo and Kensuke Suzuki

OBJECTIVE

The authors sought to demonstrate that hemorrhagic transformation of ischemic lesions is the main cause of delayed intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) after Pipeline embolization device (PED) treatment and to estimate the rate of hemorrhagic transformation of new postprocedure ischemic lesions.

METHODS

Patients who underwent PED placement (PED group) from November 2015 to March 2017 or stent-mediated embolization (EN group) from December 2010 to October 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Pre- and postprocedural MR images and 6-month follow-up MR images for each patient were scored for the presence of postprocedural bland ischemic and hemorrhagic lesions using diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) and T2*-weighted MRI (T2*WI), respectively.

RESULTS

The PED group comprised 28 patients with 30 intracranial aneurysms, and the EN group comprised 24 patients with 27 intracranial aneurysms. The mean number of ischemic lesions on DWI 1 day postprocedure was higher in the PED group than in the EN group (5.2 vs 2.7, p = 0.0010). The mean number of microbleeds detected on T2*WI 6 months postprocedure was higher in the PED group than in the EN group (0.6 vs 0.15, p = 0.028). A total of 36.7% of PED-treated patients exhibited new microbleeds on T2*WI at 6 months postprocedure, with at least 77.8% of these lesions representing hemorrhagic transformations of the new ischemic lesions observed on day 1 postprocedure. The rate of adjunctive coil embolization (27.3% vs 0.0%, p = 0.016) and the mean number of ischemic lesions observed 1 day postprocedure (6.6 vs 4.3, p = 0.020) were predictors of subsequent microbleeds in the PED group.

CONCLUSIONS

New microbleeds detected using T2*WI at 6 months postprocedure were more common after PED treatment than after stent-mediated embolization. Approximately three-quarters of these lesions were hemorrhagic transformations of new ischemic lesions observed on day 1 postprocedure. Prevention of intraprocedural or postprocedural infarcts is necessary to reduce the risk of hemorrhagic complications following PED placement.

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Yoshihiro Muragaki, Takashi Maruyama, Hiroshi Iseki, Masahiko Tanaka, Chie Shinohara, Kintomo Takakura, Koji Tsuboi, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Akira Matsumura, Masao Matsutani, Katsuyuki Karasawa, Katsunori Shimada, Naohito Yamaguchi, Yoichi Nakazato, Keiki Sato, Youji Uemae, Tadao Ohno, Yoshikazu Okada and Tomokatsu Hori

Object

The objective of the present study was analysis of results of the prospective clinical trial directed toward the evaluation of therapeutic efficacy of the administration of autologous formalin-fixed tumor vaccine (AFTV) concomitant with fractionated radiotherapy in cases of newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme.

Methods

Twenty-four patients were enrolled into the clinical trial, while 2 cases were excluded from the final analysis of results. The treatment protocol included aggressive tumor resection, fractionated radiotherapy up to a total dose of 60 Gy, and 3 concomitant courses of AFTV administered with an interval of one week at the late stage of irradiation. Two delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) tests were done—one 48 hours before the initial course of vaccination (DTH-1) and one 2 weeks after the third (DTH-2). All but one of the patients received salvage therapy at the time of tumor progression. The defined primary end point was overall survival; secondary end points were progression-free survival and safety of concomitant treatment.

Results

The median duration of overall survival was 19.8 months (95% CI 13.8–31.3 months). The actuarial 2-year survival rate was 40%. The median duration of progression-free survival was 7.6 months (95% CI 4.3–13.6 months). Overall survival showed a statistically significant association with recursive partitioning analysis class (p < 0.05); progression-free survival showed a statistically significant association with p53 staining index (p < 0.05) and size of DTH-2 response (p < 0.001). AFTV injection concomitant with fractionated radiotherapy was well tolerated by all patients and in no case did treatment-related adverse effects exceed Grade 1 toxicity; adverse effects were limited to local erythema, induration, and swelling at the site of injection.

Conclusions

The results of this study demonstrate that AFTV treatment concomitant with fractionated radiotherapy may be effective in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Further clinical testing is warranted.