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Takumi Kajitani, Toshiki Endo, Naoya Iwabuchi, Tomoo Inoue, Yoshiharu Takahashi, Takatsugu Abe, Kuniyasu Niizuma, and Teiji Tominaga

OBJECTIVE

Multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells are pluripotent stem cells, which can be harvested from the bone marrow. After transplantation, Muse cells can migrate to an injured site of the body and exert repair effects. However, it remains unknown whether Muse cell transplantation can be an effective treatment in spinal cord injury (SCI).

METHODS

The authors used a rat model of thoracic spinal cord contusion injury. For Muse cell transplantation, the clinical product CL2020 containing 300,000 Muse cells was administered intravenously 1 day after midthoracic SCI. Animals were divided into CL2020 (n = 11) and vehicle-treated (n = 15) groups. Behavioral and histological evaluations were conducted over a period of 8 weeks to see whether intravenous CL2020 administration provided therapeutic effects for SCI. The effects of human-selective diphtheria toxin on reversion of the therapeutic effects of CL2020 were also investigated.

RESULTS

Hindlimb motor function significantly improved after CL2020 transplantations. Importantly, the effects were reverted by the human-selective diphtheria toxin. In immunohistochemical analyses, the cystic cavity formed after the injury was smaller in the CL2020 group. Furthermore, higher numbers of descending 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) fibers were preserved distal to the injury site after CL2020 administration. Eight weeks after the injury, Muse cells in CL2020 were confirmed to differentiate most predominantly into neuronal cells in the injured spinal cord.

CONCLUSIONS

Following SCI, Muse cells in CL2020 can reach the injured spinal cord after intravenous administration and differentiate into neuronal cells. Muse cells in CL2020 facilitated nerve fiber preservation and exerted therapeutic potential for severe SCI.

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Sumito Okuyama, Shinjitsu Nishimura, Yoshiharu Takahashi, Keiichi Kubota, Takayuki Hirano, Ken Kazama, Masato Tomii, Junko Matsuyama, Junichi Mizuno, Tadao Matsushima, Masataka Sato, and Kazuo Watanabe

OBJECTIVE

Hypoperfusion during carotid artery cross-clamping (CC) for carotid endarterectomy (CEA) may result in the major complication of perioperative stroke. Median nerve somatosensory evoked potential (MNSSEP) monitoring, which is an established method for the prediction of cerebral ischemia, has low sensitivity in detecting such hypoperfusion. In this study the authors sought to explore the limitations of MNSSEP monitoring compared to tibial nerve somatosensory evoked potential (TNSSEP) monitoring for the detection of CC-related hypoperfusion.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively analyzed data from patients who underwent unilateral CEA with routine shunt use. All patients underwent preoperative magnetic resonance angiography and were monitored for intraoperative cerebral ischemia by using MNSSEP, TNSSEP, and carotid stump pressure during CC. First, the frequency of MNSSEP and TNSSEP changes during CC were analyzed. Subsequently, variables related to stump pressure were determined by using linear analysis and those related to each of the somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) changes were determined by using logistic regression analysis.

RESULTS

A total of 94 patients (mean age 74 years) were included in the study. TNSSEP identified a greater number of SSEP changes during CC than MNSSEP (20.2% vs 11.7%; p < 0.05). Linear regression analysis demonstrated that hypoplasia of the contralateral proximal segment of the anterior cerebral artery (A1 hypoplasia) (p < 0.01) and hypoplasia of the ipsilateral precommunicating segment of the posterior cerebral artery (P1 hypoplasia) (p = 0.02) independently and negatively correlated with stump pressure. Both contralateral A1 hypoplasia (OR 26.25, 95% CI 4.52–152.51) and ipsilateral P1 hypoplasia (OR 8.75, 95% CI 1.83–41.94) were independently related to the TNSSEP changes. However, only ipsilateral P1 hypoplasia (OR 8.76, 95% CI 1.61–47.67) was independently related to MNSSEP changes.

CONCLUSIONS

TNSSEP monitoring appears to be superior to MNSSEP in detecting CC-related hypoperfusion. Correlation with stump pressure and SSEP changes indicates that TNSSEP, and not MNSSEP monitoring, is a reliable indicator of cerebral ischemia in the territory of the anterior cerebral artery.