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Kyung-Il Jo, Yong Seok Im, Doo-Sik Kong, Ho Jun Seol, Do-Hyun Nam, Yoon-Duck Kim and Jung-Il Lee


The goal of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of multisession Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) in the treatment of benign orbital tumors.


Twenty-three patients who retained their vision despite having tumors touching their optic nerve were treated with multisession (4-fraction) GKS. The median tumor volume was 2800 mm3 (range 211–10,800 mm3), and the median cumulative margin dose was 20 Gy (range 18–22 Gy).


The median clinical follow-up duration in these patients was 38 months (range 9–74 months). No patient experienced tumor progression in this study. In particular, a higher degree of tumor shrinkage was found in the 7 patients with cavernous hemangiomas than in patients with other types of lesions (p < 0.05). Of the 23 patients whose preoperative vision was preserved, 11 showed improvement in visual acuity and/or visual field and 12 showed stable visual acuity. No GKS-related adverse events were noted during or after treatment.


Multisession radiosurgery using the Gamma Knife may be a good strategy for tumors in direct contact with the optic nerve. A cumulative margin dose of up to 22 Gy delivered in 4 sessions is safe for preservation of visual function with a high probability of tumor control.

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Doo-Sik Kong, Stephanie Ming Young, Chang-Ki Hong, Yoon-Duck Kim, Sang Duk Hong, Jung Won Choi, Ho Jun Seol, Jung-Il Lee, Hyung Jin Shin, Do-Hyun Nam and Kyung In Woo


Cranioorbital tumors are complex lesions that involve the deep orbit, floor of the frontal bone, and lesser and greater wing of the sphenoid bone. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical and ophthalmological outcomes with an endoscopic transorbital approach (TOA) in the management of cranioorbital tumors involving the deep orbit and intracranial compartment.


The authors performed endoscopic TOAs via the superior eyelid crease incision in 18 patients (16 TOA alone and 2 TOA combined with a simultaneous endonasal endoscopic resection) with cranioorbital tumors from September 2016 to November 2017. There were 12 patients with sphenoorbital meningiomas. Other lesions included osteosarcoma, plasmacytoma, sebaceous gland carcinoma, intraconal schwannoma, cystic teratoma, and fibrous dysplasia. Ten patients had primary lesions and 8 patients had recurrent tumors. Thirteen patients had intradural lesions, while 5 had only extradural lesions.


Of 18 patients, 7 patients underwent gross-total resection of the tumor and 7 patients underwent planned near-total resection of the tumor, leaving the cavernous sinus lesion. Subtotal resection was performed in 4 patients with recurrent tumors. There was no postoperative CSF leak requiring reconstruction surgery. Fourteen of 18 patients (77.8%) had preoperative proptosis on the ipsilateral side, and all 14 patients had improvement in exophthalmos; the mean proptosis reduced from 5.7 ± 2.7 mm to 1.5 ± 1.4 mm. However, some residual proptosis was evident in 9 of the 14 (64%). Ten of 18 patients (55.6%) had preoperative optic neuropathy, and 6 of them (60.0%) had improvement; the median best-corrected visual acuity improved from 20/100 to 20/40. Thirteen of 18 patients showed mild ptosis at an immediate postoperative examination, all of whom had a spontaneous and complete recovery of their ptosis during the follow-up period. Three of 7 patients showed improvement in extraocular motility after surgery.


Endoscopic TOA can be considered as an option in the management of cranioorbital tumors involving complex anatomical areas, with acceptable sequelae and morbidity.